imc indymedia

Los Angeles Indymedia : Activist News

white themeblack themered themetheme help
About Us Contact Us Calendar Publish RSS
Features
latest news
best of news
syndication
commentary


KILLRADIO

VozMob

ABCF LA

A-Infos Radio

Indymedia On Air

Dope-X-Resistance-LA List

LAAMN List




IMC Network:

Original Cities

www.indymedia.org africa: ambazonia canarias estrecho / madiaq kenya nigeria south africa canada: hamilton london, ontario maritimes montreal ontario ottawa quebec thunder bay vancouver victoria windsor winnipeg east asia: burma jakarta japan korea manila qc europe: abruzzo alacant andorra antwerpen armenia athens austria barcelona belarus belgium belgrade bristol brussels bulgaria calabria croatia cyprus emilia-romagna estrecho / madiaq euskal herria galiza germany grenoble hungary ireland istanbul italy la plana liege liguria lille linksunten lombardia london madrid malta marseille nantes napoli netherlands nice northern england norway oost-vlaanderen paris/Île-de-france patras piemonte poland portugal roma romania russia saint-petersburg scotland sverige switzerland thessaloniki torun toscana toulouse ukraine united kingdom valencia latin america: argentina bolivia chiapas chile chile sur cmi brasil colombia ecuador mexico peru puerto rico qollasuyu rosario santiago tijuana uruguay valparaiso venezuela venezuela oceania: adelaide aotearoa brisbane burma darwin jakarta manila melbourne perth qc sydney south asia: india mumbai united states: arizona arkansas asheville atlanta austin baltimore big muddy binghamton boston buffalo charlottesville chicago cleveland colorado columbus dc hawaii houston hudson mohawk kansas city la madison maine miami michigan milwaukee minneapolis/st. paul new hampshire new jersey new mexico new orleans north carolina north texas nyc oklahoma philadelphia pittsburgh portland richmond rochester rogue valley saint louis san diego san francisco san francisco bay area santa barbara santa cruz, ca sarasota seattle tampa bay tennessee urbana-champaign vermont western mass worcester west asia: armenia beirut israel palestine process: fbi/legal updates mailing lists process & imc docs tech volunteer projects: print radio satellite tv video regions: oceania united states topics: biotech

Surviving Cities

www.indymedia.org africa: canada: quebec east asia: japan europe: athens barcelona belgium bristol brussels cyprus germany grenoble ireland istanbul lille linksunten nantes netherlands norway portugal united kingdom latin america: argentina cmi brasil rosario oceania: aotearoa united states: austin big muddy binghamton boston chicago columbus la michigan nyc portland rochester saint louis san diego san francisco bay area santa cruz, ca tennessee urbana-champaign worcester west asia: palestine process: fbi/legal updates process & imc docs projects: radio satellite tv
printable version - js reader version - view hidden posts - tags and related articles

Benjamin Tucker: American Mutualist Part 1

by . Sunday, Oct. 01, 2017 at 5:20 PM

In an Individualist Mutualist market economy of Josiah Warren, Benjamin Tucker, or Stephen Pearl Andrews employers can indeed pay themselves more money than their employees for equal time worked however even though they can pay themselves more money than their employees for equal time worked they are still Mutualists and not Capitalists. Why is this?

Benjamin Tucker: American Mutualist Part 1

By Nicholas Evans 2017



In an Individualist Mutualist market economy of Josiah Warren, Benjamin Tucker, or Stephen Pearl Andrews employers can indeed pay themselves more money than their employees for equal time worked however even though they can pay themselves more money than their employees for equal time worked they are still Mutualists and not Capitalists. Why is this?

This is because it is not necessarily wages as such which determines if a market is capitalist or not but if the employees are paid enough to generally to repurchase the value of their labor on the market and if the employer actually does work in the business they own. In other words Capitalism is a market system with a subject theory of value which does not in general factor into account labor into the prices of wage labor or products so the employees are generally not paid the full value of their labor. In a Mutualist market system or socialist market system, the employees would be paid enough to repurchase the value they produce on the market and so receive the full value of their labor. (As should be noted the only way for the employees to have their full value reflected on the market is when there is equality of opportunity on the market. This is not possible under capitalism because are forced to accept low wages to survive. See Tuckers State Socialism and Anarchism.)1.

So markets do not equate Capitalism and markets can exist in both Capitalist subjective theory of value markets (where it does not factor labor into wage labor or the price of their products) or as a Mutualist labor theory of value (where markets that do indeed factor labor into the price of their wage labor or products.)

So when employees are paid enough to repurchase the general value they created on the market there is no economic exploitation (economic exploitation is also called surplus value) and so the employers are no longer capitalists due to the employer no longer being exploitive by not extracting surplus value from the employees and hence the employer becomes a worker who's wage as an employer is subject to the going rate on the market in their particular industry just like the employees wages are subject to the going rates on the markets of their particular industry. Therefore employers can indeed pay themselves more money than their employees for equal time worked if the current wage rate on the Mutualist market is determined so. The employer must actually work to earn a wage, they cannot simply own the business without doing any work. If they simply own the business without working and receive income from the business they are again extracting surplus value and would become capitalists. Surplus value means earning an income without working for it in a business. 2.

It is important to note that the Individualist Anarchism market Mutualism of Tucker, Warren, and Andrews and in fact any market socialist economy that is based on the labor theory of value must have equality of opportunity on the market.

For example:

In a capitalist economy the average going rate of a job on the market is distorted because workers are forced to accept lower wages just to survive. If the workers had the option to go into business for themselves with relative ease, most workers would not accept employers who offer low wages. Therefore wages would go up as employers would offer more to entice workers to work for them rather than the workers going into business for themselves. This way workers would be in position to dictate their own wages and the wages would reflect the true value of their occupation on the market. Employers that pay their workers less than that general value on the market of that occupation would be exploiting the worker.

The Libertarian Individualist Market Socialism (sometimes also called Individualist Mutualism) of Tucker and others made it a point to have equality of opportunity on the market otherwise exploitation on the market would still exist as stated in the example between a capitalist market and individualist mutualist market mentioned above.

Tucker's aim was to eliminate usury which are the result of un-equal markets based in the subjective theory of value of Capitalism.

This usury consisted of three main forms: Profit, interest, and rent which are considered forms of unearned income in the labor theory of value of Mutualism and Market Socialism. 3.

When Tucker spoke of profits he did Not mean the simple act of making money from a sale of products. Tucker meant Capitalist exploitive profits through the employer extracting surplus value from the employees. An example of this kind of profit is as follows:

In a capitalist economy the average going rate of a job on the market is distorted because workers are forced to accept lower wages just to survive. The money value that would have been the workers income if they were paid their full market value is the surplus value now pocketed by the employer. The actual value cannot be determined on a capitalist market however because workers are accepting wages just to survive. In a market where the workers needs are already met with equality of opportunity on the market, they can then be in a position to dictate their wages and the wages would then reflect their entire value.

The employers must actually work to receive a wage. Simply owing a business and not doing any work as an employer and making money from their employees would be another form of surplus value and exploitation. So the employer must actually work in the business they own to receive their wages in a non-exploitive manner. Ofcourse employers do not only pay themselves wages but they also receive money from the income of the company to cover costs of running the business and overhead costs. 4.

Non-Capitalist Profit in a very general sense is where surplus value is not made, in other words the money left over for the employer after the employer paid the overhead costs of running the business and after they pay their employees the total general value they produced on the market at the time, the left over money is their wage. Such non-exploitive profit is considered good by the Individualist Mutualists and is how a normal part of how an individualist market mutualist business operates and how the market mutualist economy functions in the Individualist Libertarian Market Socialism of Tucker, Warren, and Andrews ect ect. 5.

A fair market would be achieved according to Tucker through Mutual Banks offering cheap credit at interest less than 1 percent which were designed to cover only the cost of running the business of the mutual bank. (Ie. Overhead costs and wages ect) Therefore anyone in good standing could go into business for themselves and therefore would not offer to work for an employer that would pay them a wage less than the value they produce on the market. 6.

Tucker opposed rent because people who do not have land or must pay for land are the result of land monopoly which impoverishes many people because people must pay others to live on the land if they can afford it and they are more likely to spend time just trying to survive and are more likely to settle for wages less than their full value on the market simply to survive and pay the needs to live. With free land or 'occupancy and use' as Tucker stated, land would become much easier to access and poverty would be greatly reduced. 7.

How exactly can an individualist anarchist business with employers be applied into today’s economy?

The mutualist business can be run in the Individualist Anarchist way with employers by having everyone in the company (both employers and employees) vote on wages of both the wages of the employees and the wages of the employers. The jobs within the company that are the most stressful mentally or physically would be paid the most. This is the Labor Theory of Value or the 'Cost Principle' (which includes the mental and physical stress) of the theory of Josiah Warren. 8. If business is doing poorly for whatever reason and pay cuts were needed everyone in the company would vote on how much pay to cut. The only difference between the individualist model with employers and co-ops (ie Proudhon) is in the Individualist anarchist model the employers are not voted in or out like in the model of Proudhon. In either model there is no surplus value because the wage is decided by how difficult the work is and only people who work (add value) are paid and the employees being the majority in the company decide their wages themselves through voting (rather than letting the market do it with equality of opportunity on the market if they were in a individualist anarchist market) are by both the employer and employees voting on wages and by both actually doing their work they are being paid for; they have equality of opportunity to decide their whole wages depending on the physical and mental intensity and thus receive their entire product.*

Notes:

*It is my opinion the Individualist Anarchist J K Ingalls had the correct idea due to his belief that land should be of upmost importance along with eliminating the exploitation of labor because when people have their basic needs met through free land and shelter (and in my opinion society should give free food staples, electricity and other basics) so the need to survive is already taken care of. If the needs to survive are Not taken care of people will tend to settle for wages that pay them less than the value of their labor because they need to pay for the basics like food shelter ect just to live and the market would no longer have equality of opportunity on the market and hence usury. Once all their survival needs are met the market becomes one of equality of opportunity and naturally the labor values of their labor would reflect the prices on the market because people would not settle for working with employers who pay them less than their value of their labor. For more information on J.K. Ingalls see the book Men Against The State by Martin. However non-exploitive landlords who rent can exist in an Individualist Mutualist Society based on the cost principle. Within Capitalism tenants pay for a house based on how popular or how useful the house or place is. However in an Individualist Mutualist society based on the cost principle the price of the rent factors only the wear and tear of maintaining the house or place and the cost of insurance and the labor of the landlord in maintaining the house or place. Warren sates: Within Capitalism and the subjective theory of value: “Rents of land, buildings, ect., especially in cities, are based chiefly on the value to the occupants, and this depends on the degree of want or distress felt by the landless and houseless; the greater the distress, the higher the value and the price.” Within the Individualist Mutualist society: “The equitable rent of either would be the wear, insurance, ect., and the labor of making contracts and receiving the rents, all of which are different items of cost.” Warren, Josiah. Equitable Commerce. ULAN Press. USA 2017. Pp 46. By ‘cost’ Warren means the physical and mental labor along with the material costs in addition to the average going rate on the market are all factored into price.

References:

1. Tucker, Benjamin. Instead of a Book. Forgotten Books. 2012. Also please see: Marx, Karl. Capital Volume One. Penguin Classics. 1990. Kropotkin states: “…the capitalists to appropriate for themselves a quite disproportionate share of the yearly accumulated surplus of production…” Kropotkin, Peter., Anarchism (1910) Encyclopedia Britannica. And Alexander Berkman The Individualists and Mutualists maintain that liberty means “the right of every one to the product of his toil” Berkman, Alexander. The ABC of Anarchism. New York. Vanguard Press. 1929. Chapter 23 Non-Communist Anarchists. For Capitalism and the subjective theory of value please see: Marshall, Alfred. Principles of Economics. The Macmillan Company, London. 1930.

2. Tucker, Benjamin. Instead of a Book. Forgotten Books. 2012. Please also see: Marx, Karl. Capital Volumes 1 and 2.

3. Ibid

4. Ibid

5. “…it will make no difference whether men work for themselves, or are employed, or employ others. In any case they can get nothing but that wage for their labor…” Tucker, Benjamin. Instead of a Book: By a Man too Busy to Write One. New York: Gordon Press. (1972) pp 5 and pp 475. Andrews, Stephen. Science of Society. Leopold Classic Library. USA (2016) pp 233.

6. Please see: State Socialism and Anarchism by Benjamin Tucker

7. Ibid.

8. Warren. Josiah. Equitable Commerce. ULAN Press. USA (2017) pp 46

Report this post as:

Local News

GUIDE TO REBEL CITY LOS ANGELES AVAILABLE A12 5:39PM

lausd whistle blower A10 11:58PM

Website Upgrade A10 3:02AM

Help KCET and UCLA identify 60s-70s Chicano images A04 1:02PM

UCLA Luskin: Casting Youth Justice in a Different Light A02 11:58AM

Change Links April 2018 A01 11:27AM

Nuclear Shutdown News March 2018 M31 6:57PM

Join The Protest Rally in Glendale on April 10, 2018! M29 7:00PM

Join The Protest Rally in Glendale on April 10, 2018! M29 6:38PM

Spring 2018 National Immigrant Solidarity Network News Alert! M19 2:02PM

Anti-Eviction Mapping Project Shows Shocking Eviction Trends in L.A. M16 5:40PM

Steve Mnuchin video at UCLA released M15 12:34AM

Actress and Philanthropist Tanna Frederick Hosts Project Save Our Surf Beach Clean Ups M06 12:10PM

After Being Told He's 'Full of Sh*t' at School Event, Mnuchin Demands UCLA Suppress Video M02 11:44AM

Resolution of the Rent Strike in Boyle Heights M01 6:28PM

What Big Brother Knows About You and What You Can Do About It M01 3:30PM

Step Up As LAPD Chief Charlie Beck Steps Down F14 2:44PM

Our House Grief Support Center Hosts 9th Annual Run For Hope, April 29 F13 12:51PM

Don’t let this LA County Probation Department overhaul proposal sit on the shelf F13 11:04AM

Echo Park Residents Sue LA Over Controversial Development F12 8:51AM

Former Signal Hill police officer pleads guilty in road-rage incident in Irvine F09 10:25PM

Calif. Police Accused of 'Collusion' With Neo-Nazis After Release of Court Documents F09 7:14PM

Center for the Study of Political Graphics exhibit on Police Abuse posters F07 9:50AM

City Agrees to Settle Lawsuit Claiming Pasadena Police Officer Had His Sister Falsely Arre F04 3:17PM

Professor's Study Highlights Health Risks of Urban Oil Drilling F04 12:42PM

Claims paid involving Pasadena Police Department 2014 to present F04 10:52AM

Pasadenans - get your license plate reader records from police F03 11:11PM

LA Times Homicide Report F03 1:57PM

More Local News...

Other/Breaking News

Doxa du lobby A25 2:03AM

Tech workers organize A24 6:24PM

Architect Stephen Francis Jones A24 3:01PM

UN Forum Wrestles with Economic Policies 10 Years After Financial Crisis Islands Call for A24 12:34PM

Xyloglossie attitudinale A23 8:07AM

Shadowgun Legends Hack and Cheats A23 7:24AM

What does the Quran Say About Islamic Dress?? A21 4:15PM

Biodiversité ou la nature privatisée A20 11:22AM

The Market is a Universal Totalitarian Religion A20 7:14AM

Book Available about Hispanics and US Civil War by National Park Service A19 5:52PM

The Shortwave Report 04/20/18 Listen Globally! A19 4:01PM

The Republican 'Prolife' Party Is the Party of War, Execution, and Bear Cub Murder A19 11:48AM

Neurogenèse involutive A18 9:21AM

Paraphysique de la dictature étatique A16 10:13AM

Book Review: "The New Bonapartists" A16 3:45AM

The West Must Take the First Steps to Russia A14 12:25PM

Théorie générale de la révolution ou hommage à feu Mikhaïl Bakounine A14 3:30AM

The Shortwave Report 04/13/18 Listen Globally! A12 3:50PM

“Lost in a Dream” Singing Competition Winner to Be Chosen on April 15 for ,000 Prize! A12 3:48PM

The World Dependent on Central Banks A12 4:43AM

Ohio Governor Race: Dennis Kucinich & Richard Cordray Run Against Mike DeWine A11 9:40PM

March 2018 Honduras Coup Again Update A10 10:52PM

Apologie du zadisme insurrectionnel A10 3:33PM

ICE contract with license plate reader company A10 1:14PM

Palimpseste sisyphéen A09 11:23PM

Black Portraiture(S) IV: The Color of Silence...Cuba No...Cambridge Yes A09 5:32AM

Prohibiting Micro-Second Betting on the Exchanges A09 4:18AM

Prosecutors treat Muslims harsher than non-Muslims for the same crimes A08 10:33PM

More Breaking News...
© 2000-2018 Los Angeles Independent Media Center. Unless otherwise stated by the author, all content is free for non-commercial reuse, reprint, and rebroadcast, on the net and elsewhere. Opinions are those of the contributors and are not necessarily endorsed by the Los Angeles Independent Media Center. Running sf-active v0.9.4 Disclaimer | Privacy