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Death of Gaddafi/The National Transitional Council's bloody path

by Astrid Essed Sunday, Nov. 27, 2011 at 2:23 AM

The resistance against the former president Gaddafi was legitimate However, the rebels not only allied with the NATO, sacrifying real Libyan independence, they also commit warcrimes with little distinction between them and Gaddafi With Gaddafi gone





DEATH OF GADDAFI/THE NATIONAL TRANSITIONAL COUNCIL'S BLOODY PATH







''Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. ''



Article 10, Universal Declaration of Human Rights



http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Pages/Language.aspx?LangID=eng







''''It is forbidden to kill or injure an enemy who surrenders or who is hors de combat ''



Article 2, Basic rules of International Humanitarian Law in armed conflicts



http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/basic-rules-ihl-311288.htm



The prohibition on executions without trial [summary executions] AND the obligation

to treat prisoners of war humanely is confirmed by article 3, 3th Geneva Convention





http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/375?OpenDocument





INTRODUCTION:



After 42 years the dictatorship of Gaddafi has come to an end

However, the new rulers don't deserve any benefit of the doubt

They didn't trust on the strength of the Libyan people and made alliance with the NATO

which only serve Western interests

With a pro Western regime, the Libyan people can forget any real independence and

social advancement

Regarding human rights they made a bloody beginning with the apparent extrajudicial

execution of Gaddafi and his son Mutassim

Prisoners have been tortured and humiliated

There are vehement racist attacks on African migrant workers and black Libyans

When the situation stays this and those responsible for torture and violence

don't face prosecution, the former Gaddafi dictatorship will be followed by a next one







Dear Editor and readers,



Friday 21 october the world learnt, that former president Muammar Gaddafi, who had ruled

Libya for 42 years, had died [1]

Although the new rulers, the National Transitial Council, claimed, that Gaddafi was killed

in a crossfire, soon news was spread, that he was extrajudicially executed, which was

confirmed by video's [2]

The video images were barbaric and the public exposure of the bodies of Gaddafi, his son

Mutassim and his Defence minister Abu Bakr Younis, were a shame and a disgrace and against International Humanitarian Law

And moreover a huge violation of Islamic burial rules, which commands a burial

within a day.

The bodies were disposed to the public for four days! [3]

But that is not all



When Gaddafi were alive when imprisoned and therefore was a POW [prisoner of war], his

execution was a war crime

According to International Humanitarian Law, article 2 and the 3th Geneva Convention

[regarding the treatment of prisoners of war], article 3, it is strictly forbidden to kill someone, who has surrendered

Also it is an international obligation to treat prisoners of war humanely [4]



Moreover, in International Law any human being has a right to a fair and independent trial

In the case of Gaddafi it was a trial before the International Criminal Court, which had ordered

arrest warrants against him, his son Saif al-Islam and the Intelligence chief

Abdullah al-Sanussi

His son Saif al-Islam has been arrested by the National Transitional Council at 19 november

Two days later, Gaddafi's Intelligence Chief, Abdullah al-Sanussi, were also arrested

Both men are wanted by the ICC on charges of crimes against humanity for their roles in attacks on civilians, including peaceful demonstrators, in Tripoli, Benghazi, Misrata, and other Libyan cities and towns after the start of anti-government protests in eastern Libya on February 15 [5]



The call for an investigation after the circumstances of the death of Gaddafi sounded

from the very beginning from the side of the UN and human rights organisations

Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch [6]

Autopsy showed, that he is killed by a shot in the head and the National Transitional

Council has not only ordered an investigation, but also declared, that those responsible

for the death of Gaddafi, will be prosecuted [7]



His son Mutassim died under the same suspect circumstances

Video images show, that he was still alive, when imprisoned

He was interrogated and a time later he was shot [8]



Guess who is responsible.....................





GADDAFI IS DEAD

THE DEAD CAN'T TALK



The barbaric executions of Gaddafi and his son at the hands of the rebels don't come as a suprise

From the beginning of the uprise, the rebels have committed warcrimes and human rights

violations like the mistreatment and humiliation of prisoners and racist attacks on African migrant

workers and black Libyans, on the pretext, that they were ''mercenaries'' of Gaddafi

This was reported by Human Rights and Amnesty International [9]

After the fall of Sirte Human Rights Watch team found the dead bodies of 53 pro Gaddafi fighters

in a hotel

Apparently they were extrajudicially killed [10]





GADDAFI'S DEATH A RELIEF TO THE WEST

THE DEAD CAN'T TALK





''If he had been brought to trial for his crimes he would have been able to mention all the help he received from Western intelligence services who rendered opponents to his torture chambers or the London School of Economics that helped rehabilitate his image and that of his family's regime.''





http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=26466





The big question is, whether the extrajudicial execution of Gaddafi was pure revenge or

to silence him

For Gaddafi knew too much



As the former Western allies of Gaddafi [since 11 september 2001], as those members of

the National Transitional Council, who had belonged to the former Gaddafi regime would

have been seriously embarrassed, when Gaddafi had been brought for the International Criminal Court [11]



For except the dirty deal he and his former friend, the ex Italian prime minister

Berlusconi had closed in order to prevent refugees to come to Europe [12], there were more

shady things

A number of Western States, especially the US and Great Britain deported real or alleged

terrorsuspects to Libya by means of rendition flghts and in Libya they were tortured.

Human Rights Watch has systematically reported this and protested against those

practices [13]

As well as the US and British Intelligence Services cooperated closely with Gaddafi

and informed him about the Libyan opposition [14]

A number of members of the National Transitional Council are former high officials

of the Gaddafi regime.

They would not be happy either with a living Gaddafi, who could tell about their

dirty practices [15]



The Gaddafi deals with the Western rulers and the ex ties of some members of the NTC

[National Transitional Council] are no secret

Otherwise I could not write about it

However, there are always certain secret details, which must be secret to all

the parties involved.

Undoubtedly Gaddafi would have revealed them if he were brought for the ICC



But dead men can't talk

So Gaddafi took al his secrets to his grave in the desert.........[16]





SINCE 11 SEPTEMBER 2001

GADDAFI AS AN ALLY IN THE ''WAR ON TERROR''

GADDAFI'S DIRTY DEALS WITH THE WEST





There were a lot of things the West would rather not seen revealed, when Gaddafi brought to trial.

Since 11 september 2001, Gaddafi, who was a yearlong enemy of the US because of his

real or alleged ties with ''terrorism'' [17], had offered himself to the West as an ally in the

socalled ''war on terror''



Consequences of that new ''friendship'' were the close tie with former colonial power Italy

Gaddafi made a dirty deal with former prime minister Berlusconi to prevent refugees

to come to Europe [18]

So Gaddafi became EU's strong man, protecting Fortress Europe [19]

US and European countries like Great Britain could make a use of Gaddafi's torturerooms

by deporting real or alleged terrorsuspects to Libya on rendition flights

Often those prisoners were first tortured by the CIA [20]



Understandably some members of the National Transitional Council [at first high

members of the Gaddafi regime] don't want their acts to be exposed either [21]



CHARACTER OF THE NATIONAL TRANSITIONAL COUNCIL



''The former rebels form a heterogeneous group of strongly diverting political and ethnic origins. Various former Qadhafi officials joined the opposition either out of opportunism or in search of power conservation. [22]

But also Islamist factions play a role in the former rebels

For example, the leader of the Military Council in Tripoli is Abdelhakim Belhadj, an Afghanistan veteran and leader of the Al Qaida linked LIFG (Libyan Islamic Fighters Group). [23]

The leader of the Cynically enough Belhadj was extradited to Libya by the CIA in 2004, and was then tortured before he was released by an amnesty measure in 2010 [24]



The uprising was of course legitimate as a resistance against the 42 years bloody

dictatorship of the Gaddafi regime

However, the resistance was soon captured by former Gaddafi high officials, who only wanted

a regime change and despite resistance of other rebel factions appealed to Western

military support [25]

Any authentic resistance died, since Western interests were at stake now



GADDAFI AND THE WEST

THE FAIRY TALE OF THE ALTRUISTIC NATO SUPPORT



Writer of this article and others have mentioned from the beginning, that the

NATO help had nothing to do with real concern for the Libyan people, but stems

purely from economic and neo colonial hegenomistic interests [26]

We have emphasized, that the Libyan resistance should rely on own strength [27]



Altruistic Western help is a fairy tale, bought by naive people, but the Western/

NATO history tells a whole different story.

Take for example the NATO bombings in the Kosovo war, with many civilian death

and as result of the war and the ethnic cleansings of 200 000 Serbs and Roma

which have been bagatellised by the West [28]



Two of NATO coutries, the US and Great Britain,

which fullfilled the role of socalled ''benefactors'' are responsible

for the military attacks and occupations of Afghanistan and Iraq, which caused thousands

of civilian deaths by the use of clusterboms and munitions [29]

The idea, that in Libya it would go otherwise is pure nonsense and a bad fairy tale

for children

The death of many Libyan civilians, caused by NATO bombings proved that [30]

There are always naive souls, who believe in the sudden ''goodness'' of the West.

In this case, their ranks were joined by

socalled leftist progessive persons, who should have known better [31]

They were wrong, as the horrible developements in Libya proved





But what exactly were the Western motives to get rid of Gaddafi?



GADDAFI AND THE WEST

WESTERN MOTIVES FOR A REGIME CHANGE



Why the West wanted a regime change in Libya, while Gaddafi was doing the dirty work

as a ''trusted'' ally and the oildeals were satisfactory? [32]



Of course he WAS reliable, but in the eyes of the West he stayed an unpredictable leader.

By supporting the rebellion against him, more reliable pro Western figures could

be brought to power

That was the West's way to control the Arab spring better and to prevent

fundamental changes, at least in Libya.

There were economic interests to protect



NATO SUPPORT COMES WITH A PRIZE



The West had its reason to promote a regime change

That's an explanation why the peace proposals of the AU [African Union]

and the Venezuelan president Chavez [accepted by the Gaddafi regime], have

been rejected by the NATO and the rebels [33]



But for Western help is a prize to be paid and the prize is bitter for the Libyan

people, who didn't ask for this intervention

The West certainly is no friend of the Libyans and only serve its own interests



However, the rebels, who thank their power to the NATO help, gladly

pay the prize, guaranteeing profitable oilcontracts



HELP NATO AFTER GARANTEEING THE OILCONTRACTS



''The West doesn’t have any altruistic aims. It wants to secure oil and business contracts under any new regime and ensure that its economic power in the region is unthreatened. ''





http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24186





This quote reveals excellently the NATO political and military role

By the ''successful'' NATO military intervention, the prize for the rebels is controlling

the country

But not after the promise, that the Western oil deals are guaranteed

THIS WAS THE CONDITION UNDER WHICH NATO HELP WAS GIVEN [34]



With the humanitarian card [Responsibility to protect, the ''good'' West

against the ''evil'' Gaddafi] the NATO and its gang sold the military intervention

to the world



But as always, hegemonistic and economical interests were the real reason







NATO INTERVENTION IN LIBYA



It is obvious, that Gaddafi has led a dictatorship, which is responsible for

many human rights violations

As well during his reign as the uprising of the rebels [35]

But also the NATO ''liberators'' and the rebels have blood on their hands





THE BLOODY HANDS OF THE NATO





''Parties to a conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants in order to

spare civilian population and property. Neither the civilian population as such nor civilian persons shall be the

object of attack. Attacks shall be directed solely against military objectives.''



Article 7, Internationaal Humanitarian Law



http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/basic-rules-ihl-311288.htm





Eager to overthrow the Gaddafi regime, NATO bombed military targets without

any consideration with nearby civilian goals.

Many military targets are located in the vicinity of residential areas.

Especially residential area Bab al-Aziziya, where Gaddafi lived, was target again and again.

According to the Bishop of Tripoli many civilians were killed [36]



Bombing military targets, which are in the vicinity of civilian goals [like

residential areas] is a great risk, since it is very difficult to protect

civilians

When civilians are killed or injured anyway, it is a warcrime, since according International

Humanitarian Law a strict distinction must be made between

combatants [military and fighters] and non-combatants [civilians] [37]



Therefore it is of great importance, that the Public Procesutor of the ICC, Moreno

Ocampo, has announced to investigate real or alleged NATO and rebel warcrimes [38]





THE REBEL ''LIBERATORS'' OF LIBYA

HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AND WARCRIMES

MISTREATMENTS/EXECUTIONS OF PRISONERS



Despite the allegations of the [former] rebels, to fight for ''democracy'', ''justice'' and to uphold human rights, they have a very poor human rights record concerning their warfare and

treatment of prisoners [of war].



At least hundred gangs of rebelmilitia, from Misrata and the Nasufa Mountains [39]

have made themselves guilty of arbitrary arrests, mistreatments and torture of imprisoned

pro Gaddafi fighters

Other atrocities were extrajudicial executions, rapes, lootings and burnings of houses, belonging to real or alleged Gaddafi supporters

It concerns thousands of prisoners, at least 2500 held in Tripoli and 1100 in Misrata.

According to Amnesty International also children are detained.



Human Rights Watch team found the bodies of 53 killed apparent Gaddafi supporters at an abandoned hotel in

Sirte, who apparently were extrajudicially executed

Ssome had their hands bound behind their backs when they were shot, according

to Mr Peter Bouckaert, emergencies director at Human Rights Watch, who investigated

the killings [40]



REBELS WAR CRIMES

FOR WHAT THE WEST TURNS A BLIND EYE

RACIST ATTACKS ON AFRICAN MIGRANTS AND BLACK LIBYANS





''One hospitalized Tawergha told Human Rights Watch how he was shot in the side and leg and abandoned to die near Hun: “They left us at the edge of the road, put a blanket over us and then started swearing, ‘You are dogs, hope you die.’”



Source:



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/28/murder-brigades-misrata





The human rights violations and warcrimes, which the rebels committed

are horrible and in that the difference between them and the pro Gaddafi troops

is not so big

HOWEVER, STILL MORE DANGEROUS IS THE RACIST

CHARACTER OF THE REBEL CRIMES



For African migrant workers from countries like Chad, Sudan and Mali, as well

black Libyans [descendents of former black slaves] have been tortured, humiliated, raped and extrajudicially executed under the pretext, that they were ''mercenaries''

of Gaddafi

For those allegations hardly any serious evidence has been found [41]]



BUT EVEN IF IT WERE SO, FACT STAYS, THAT PEOPLE ARE BEING ARRESTED, PERSECUTED, HUMILIATED, TORTURED AND EXTRAJUDICIALLY EXECUTED BECAUSE OF THE COLOUR OF THEIR SKIN [42]





ETHNIC CLEANSINGS:



Rebels have also committed ethnic cleansings

A horrifying example is the town of Tawergha



Due to the terror of Misrata militia brigades [beatings, shootings of unarmed citizens, setting houses aflame, arbitrary arrests, deaths in detention] the entire town [of mainly black citizens] has fled to the Juffra region [South of Misrata]

This was exactly the meaning, since militia commanders have declared that the Tawerghans should never return [43]



In the book of the Misrata militia brigades all citizens of Tawergha are held

responsible for real or alleged atrocities of some ''mercenaries''



This terror against black African migrant workers and black Libyans was there since

the beginning of the uprising against Gaddafi and is silenced by Western press [44]



Now these atrocities go from bad to worse and can be compared with real pogroms,

it is finally noticed by the press [45]



Also the press had a bad responsibility in spreading the myth of the ''black mercenaries''

without substantial evidence

Especially Al Jazeera, which has lost its progessive character, was guilty of spreading

those dangerous fairy tales [46]



The National Transitional Council has condemned those atrocities and said to

Amnesty International, that it will restore law as soon as possible [47]

However, as the official Libyan authorities, the NTC is responsible for the militia atrocities

They are obliged to investigate them and bring the abusive members of the militia

to Court.



Also the NATO, which played the main part in supporting the rebels and so bringing the NTC to power, bears a big

responsibility



IT IS THE OBLIGATION OF THE NTC TO PROTECT ALL INHABITANTS OF LIBYA

FROM HARM, REGARDLESS STATUS OR DESCENT'

IT'S THE OBLIBATION, UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW, OF THE REBEL MILITIA

TO TREAT ALL PRISONERS THEY HAVE UNDER CONTROL, HUMANELY

THAT APPLIES ALSO FOR THE NTC, OF COURSE



EPILOGUE



Gaddafi has led a dictatorship and is responsible for a great number of human rights

violations and warcrimes [48]

However, its not a bagatellisation of his atrocities to mention, that

the Libyan people's standard of living is among the top in Africa.

Also he supported freedom movements like the ANC, in the time

that the West considered it as a terroristic organisation [49]



The struggled resistance against the Gaddafi dictatorship was legitimate and could have become a great succes, but has ended in a great political and humanitarian drama



Politically, since resistance didn't trust on own strength, but on Western intervention, which only serves its own, neocolonialistic interests



A humanitarian debacle, since the rebel militia have used the same atrocities, which made Gaddafi a feared leader, partly because of the presence of former Gaddafi officials

Those atrocities also show an ugly racist card, which can cause tension with African

countries



Chaos is in the country, since the NTC, which is divided over maintainance of human rights, seems to have little control over a number of militia



Then we still have the rival ethnic groups that could cause conflict in post Qadhafi Libya and we can not rule out that supporters of the former leader will take up armed resistance. [50]



The NTC will be a willing tool for Western hegemony and considering its bloody start, it is to be feared, that the situation will be not much better than under the former Gaddafi regime [51]



The only hope is, that a real resistance will stand up, challenging Western influence

and their NTC servants

Fighting for economical independence, social justice and based on Freedom, Brotherhood, Equality and Human Rights for all its inhabitants, regardless status or race



Only then, Libya will be really free





Kind greetings

Astrid Essed

Amsterdam











[1]







AL JAZEERA

MUAMMAR GADDAFI KILLED AS SIRTE FALLS

21 OCTOBER 2011



http://aljazeera.com/news/africa/2011/10/20111020111520869621.html





THE GUARDIAN

GADDAFI KILLED AS SIRTE FALLS

21 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/middle-east-live/2011/oct/20/gaddafi-killed-sirte-falls-live











[2]





WARNING

BLOODY PICTURES

DAILY MAIL

GADDAFI DEAD VIDEO: DICTATOR BEGS FOR LIFE BEFORE SUMMARY EXECUTION



http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2051361/GADDAFI-DEAD-VIDEO-Dictator-begs-life-summary-execution.html





BBC

GADDAFI DEATH: THE BLOODY BIRTH OF A NEW LIBYA

22 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15416019





[3]



WARNING

BLOODY PICTURES

DAILY MAIL

GADDAFI DEAD VIDEO: DICTATOR BEGS FOR LIFE BEFORE SUMMARY EXECUTION



http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2051361/GADDAFI-DEAD-VIDEO-Dictator-begs-life-summary-execution.html







EXPOSURE OF GADDAFI'S BODY/FOUR DAYS

Not only humiliating, but against Islamic burial rules, that demand, that a dead body must

be buried within a day



THE INDEPENDENT

LIBYA ENDS PUBLIC SHOWING OF GADDAFI'S BODY

25 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/libya-ends-public-showing-of-gaddafis-body-2375357.htm





REUTERS

LIBYA ENDS PUBLIC SHOWING OF GADDAFI'S BODY

24 OCTOBER 2011



http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/10/24/uk-libya-gaddafi-body-idUKTRE79N2GY20111024



INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS VIEW ABOUT THE PUBLIC EXPOSURE OF

DEAD BODIES



Over the past few days, people with their hands tied have been put on display on vehicles, interrogations of detainees have been filmed by local media, and mortal remains have been exposed to public curiosity...

Our view of these issues is based on the applicable rules of international humanitarian law, for which we endeavour to ensure respect.''





SOURCE:





INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS

LIBYA: DETAINEES AND THE DEAD MUST BE RESPECTED

27 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/interview/2011/libya-interview-2011-10-27.htm



THE GUARDIAN

GADDAFI BURIED IN SECRET DESERT LOCATION

25 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/25/gaddafi-buried-libya-desert





[4]



ARTICLE 3, 3TH GENEVA CONVENTION

HUMANE TREATMENT OF PRISONERS OF WARAND PROHIBITION TO KILL A PRISONER

OF WAR



''(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely,.......

..........................................................

''To this end the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:

(a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;

.....................................

.....................................



http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/375?OpenDocument



See also



www.icrc.org





ARTICLE 1 AND 2, BASIC RULES OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW IN ARMED CONFLICTS



1 - Persons hors de combat and those who do not take a direct part in hostilities are entitled to respect for their

lives and their moral and physical integrity. They shall in all circumstances be protected and treated humanely

without any adverse distinction.



2 - It is forbidden to kill or injure an enemy who surrenders or who is hors de combat .





http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/basic-rules-ihl-311288.htm













[5]



HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: Q AND A ON THE ARREST AND SURRENDER OF THE THREE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT SUSPECTS

26 AUGUST 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/08/26/libya-qa-arrest-and-surrender-three-international-criminal-court-suspects





AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

ICC MUST END CONFUSION OVER TRIAL OF GADDAFI

24 NOVEMBER 2011



http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/icc-must-end-confusion-over-trial-gaddafi-2011-11





INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

COURSE OF ACTION BEFORE THE ICC FOLLOWING THE ARREST

OF THE SUSPECT SAIF AL-ISLAM GADDAFI IN LIBYA

23 NOVEMBER 2011



http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/exeres/48F6B130-EC14-4A51-BC79-1CCF8633E270.htm











THE GUARDIAN

SAIF AL-ISLAM GADDAFI CAPTURED IN LYBYA DESERT AS HE TRIES TO FLEE

COUNTRY

19 NOVEMBER 2011





http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/19/saif-al-islam-gaddafi-capture-libya





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: SURRENDER SAIF AL-ISLAM GADDAFI TO ICC

19 NOVEMBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/19/libya-surrender-saif-al-islam-gaddafi-icc





AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

LIBYA: TRANSFER SAIF AL-ISLAM TO THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

19 NOVEMBER 2011



http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/libya-transfer-saif-al-islam-international-criminal-2011-11-19







THE GUARDIAN

GADDAFI'S INTELLIGENCE CHIEF CAPTURED IN SOUTHERN DISTRICT

20 NOVEMBER 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/20/gaddafi-son-pretended-camel-herder





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH



LIBYA: REPORTED CAPTURE OF ABDULLAH SANUSSI

20 NOVEMBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/20/libya-reported-capture-abdullah-sanussi







[6]



CNN

UN CALLS FOR GADHAFI DEATH INVESTIGATION

21 OCTOBER 2011



http://edition.cnn.com/2011/10/21/world/africa/libya-main/





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: INVESTIGATE DEATHS OF GADDAFI AND SON

22 OCTOBER 2011



''However, information obtained by Human Rights Watch, as well as videos and photographs apparently taken that day showing both men alive in the custody of anti-Gaddafi forces, indicate that they might have been executed after being detained.''





SOURCE:



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/22/libya-investigate-deaths-gaddafi-and-son





AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

LIBYA URGED TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER AL-GADDAFI DEATH WAS A WAR CRIME

21 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/libya-urged-investigate-whether-al-gaddafi-death-was-war-crime-2011-10-21





TIME WORLD

AUTOPSY SHOWS GADDAFI KILLED BY SHOT TO HEAD

23 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2097580,00.html





INDIA TODAY

MUAMMAR GADDAFI WAS SHOT IN THE HEAD: AUTOPSY

23 OCTOBER 2011



http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/muammar-gaddafi-shot-dead-autopsy/1/157280.html





[7]



TIME WORLD

AUTOPSY SHOWS GADDAFI KILLED BY SHOT TO HEAD

23 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2097580,00.html





INDIA TODAY

MUAMMAR GADDAFI WAS SHOT IN THE HEAD: AUTOPSY

23 OCTOBER 2011



http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/muammar-gaddafi-shot-dead-autopsy/1/157280.html





THE GUARDIAN

LIBYA BOWS TO CALLS FOR INVESTIGATION INTO GADDAFI DEATH

25 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/24/libya-investigation-gaddafi-death





THE GUARDIAN

GADDAFI KILLER FACES PROSECUTION, SAYS LIBYAN INTERIM GOVERNMENT

27 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/27/gaddafi-killers-face-prosecution-libya







BBC

THE GADDAFI FAMILY TREE



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12531442









[8]



HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: INVESTIGATE DEATHS OF GADDAFI AND SON

22 OCTOBER 2011



''However, information obtained by Human Rights Watch, as well as videos and photographs apparently taken that day showing both men alive in the custody of anti-Gaddafi forces, indicate that they might have been executed after being detained.''



SOURCE:



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/22/libya-investigate-deaths-gaddafi-and-son





''Videos also emerged showing the Colonel’s son Mu’tassim al-Gaddafi, also captured yesterday, lying on a bed in what appears to be a private residence. Wearing a bloodied T-shirt, he bore a neck injury but seemed to be conscious and aware of his surroundings. Later footage showed his lifeless body on a hospital bed. His death should also be independently investigated.''





SOURCE:





AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

LIBYA URGED TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER AL-GADDAFI DEATH WAS A WAR CRIME

21 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/libya-urged-investigate-whether-al-gaddafi-death-was-war-crime-2011-10-21







[9]





AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE

25 AUGUST 2011



http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: CEASE ARBITRARY ARRESTS, ABUSE OF DETAINEES

30 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/30/libya-cease-arbitrary-arrests-abuse-detainees





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: STOP ARBITRARY ARRESTS OF BLACK AFRICANS

4 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/04/libya-stop-arbitrary-arrests-black-africans





AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

TAWARGHAS MUST BE PROTECTED FROM REPRISALS AND ARBITRARY ARREST

IN LIBYA

7 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/tawarghas-must-be-protected-reprisals-and-arbitrary-arrest-libya-2011-09-07













[10]





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

APPARENT EXECUTION OF 53 GADDAFI SUPPORTERS

24 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/24/libya-apparent-execution-53-gaddafi-supporters





[11]







''If he had been brought to trial for his crimes he would have been able to mention all the help he received from Western intelligence services who rendered opponents to his torture chambers or the London School of Economics that helped rehabilitate his image and that of his family's regime.''



SOURCE:





THE SOCIALIST WORKER

GADDAFI'S DEATH IS RELIEF FOR WEST

22 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=26466





''"When a person is shot in the head it is obviously done to simply eliminate him under common accord of several parties involved. They include the so-called rebels led by NATO and the alliance members. Three of them were especially interested in keeping Gaddafi’s mouth shut at the Libyan People’s Court that may be judging the Colonel as it was proposed by Medvedev. They are France, the US and the UK. The Hussein trial showed that doing the same thing with Gaddafi could be a dangerous weapon and the Colonel had a lot to say."





SOURCE:





THE VOICE OF RUSSIA

GADDAFI'S DEATH - PURE ACCIDENT: THE WEST

22 OCTOBER 2011



http://english.ruvr.ru/2011/10/22/59176785.html









[12]



''"Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi and Mu`ammar al-Gaddafi are building their friendship agreement at the expense of people from other countries whom both regard as expendable," said Bill Frelick, refugee policy director at Human Rights Watch. "It looks less like friendship and more like a dirty deal to enable Italy to dump migrants and asylum seekers on Libya and evade its obligations."





SOURCE:



HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

ITALY/LIBYA: GADDAFI VISIT CELEBRATES DIRTY DEAL

9 JUNE 2009



http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/06/09/italylibya-gaddafi-visit-celebrates-dirty-deal





[13]





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

US/UK: DOCUMENTS REVEAL LIBYA RENDITION DETAILS

8 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/08/usuk-documents-reveal-libya-rendition-details



HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

OFF THE RECORD: US RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENFORCED DISSAPEARANCES IN THE ''WAR ON TERROR''



http://www.hrw.org/legacy/backgrounder/usa/ct0607/ct0607web.pdf



HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA/US: INVESTIGATE DEATH OF FORMER CIA PRISONER

11 MAY 2009



http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/05/11/libyaus-investigate-death-former-cia-prisoner





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

UK: TORTURE A RISK IN LIBYA DEPORTATION ACCORD

17 OCTOBER 2005



http://www.hrw.org/news/2005/10/17/uk-torture-risk-libya-deportation-accord





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

US: STOP DETAINEE'S RETURN TO TORTURE IN LIBYA

14 JUNI 2005



http://www.hrw.org/news/2007/06/14/us-stop-detainee-s-return-torture-libya

















[14]



HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

US/UK: DOCUMENTS REVEAL LIBYA RENDITION DETAILS

8 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/08/usuk-documents-reveal-libya-rendition-details



''However, her reference to widespread concern about wrong judgments is likely to be seized on by critics of the way Britain's intelligence agencies co-operated closely with Gaddafi's regime over the "rendition" of dissidents and terror suspects after the Libyan dictator agreed to abandon his chemical and nuclear weapons programme in 2003.''





SOURCE:



THE GUARDIAN

EX MI5 CHIEF'S GADDAFI REGIME RENDITION FEARS

7 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/global/2011/sep/07/mi5-chief-gaddafi-regime-rendition-fears





THE SOCIALIST WORKER

BRITAIN AND LIBYA: TORTURED FRIENDS

10 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25973





THE SOCIALIST WORKER

LINKING MI 16, BP, LSE AND LIBYA

10 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25975





[15]



''The former rebels form a heterogeneous group of strongly diverting political and ethnic origins. Various former Qadhafi officials joined the opposition either out of opportunism or in search of power conservation.



SOURCE:





LUDO DE BRABANDER

LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME

6 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time













[16]





BBC

MUAMMAR GADDAFI ''BURIED IN DESERT GRAVE AT DAWN''

25 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15441867







THE DAILY TELEGRAPH

LIBYA: GADDAFI BURIED AT DAWN IN SECRET DESERT GRAVE AS LINE IS

DRAWN UNDER 42 YEARS RULE

25 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8848866/Libya-Gaddafi-buried-at-dawn-in-secret-desert-grave-as-line-is-drawn-under-42-year-rule.html







BBC

THE GADDAFI FAMILY TREE



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12531442



[17]





AL JAZEERA

OBITUARY: MUAMMAR GADDAFI

25 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/2011/10/20111020122439605285.html





THE SOCIALIST WORKER

THE MYTH OF GADDAFI THE RADICAL

3 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25853







[18]





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

ITALY/LIBYA: GADDAFI VISIT CELEBRATES DIRTY DEAL

9 JUNE 2009



http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/06/09/italylibya-gaddafi-visit-celebrates-dirty-deal







[19]







FORTRESS EUROPE



http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2006/02/immigrants-dead-at-frontiers-of-europe_16.html



WORKERS SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT

FORTRESS EUROPE

INCREASED INTEGRATION OF EU ASYLUM AND IMMIGRATION POLICY



http://struggle.ws/wsm/pamphlets/eu/fortress.html









[20]



SEE NOTE 13





[21]



LUDO DE BRABANDER

LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME

6 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time







THE GADDAFI REGIME IS FIGHTING A NATO BACKED WING OF ITSELF

29 APRIL 2011



http://www.stopwar.org.uk/index.php/middle-east-and-north-africa/465-gaddafi-regime-now-fighting-nato-backed-breakaway-wing-of-itself





[22]



SEE NOTE 21





[23]



LUDO DE BRABANDER

LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME

6 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time









[24]



SEE NOTES 11 TILL 14

SEE ALSO







HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

US/UK: DOCUMENTS REVEAL LIBYA RENDITION DETAILS

8 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/08/usuk-documents-reveal-libya-rendition-details





[25]





THE GUARDIAN

LIBYA IS UNITED IN POPULAR REVOLUTION-PLEASE DON'T INTERVENE

MUHAMMAD MIN LIBYA

1 MARCH 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2011/mar/01/libya-revolution-no-fly-zone









[26]





COUNTERPUNCH

THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA

31 AUGUSTUS 2011



http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/





MILITARY ACTIONS AGAINST LIBYA/LIBYAN RESISTANCE MUST RELY ON OWN STRENGTH

ASTRID ESSED



http://la.indymedia.org/news/2011/03/245119.php





LUDO DE BRABANDER

LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME

6 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time







PRESS COMMUNIQUE FROM VREDE [DUTCH WORD FOR PEACE] WZW

MILITARY INTERVENTION IN LIBYA? NO THANKS!

10 MARCH 2011



http://www.vrede.be/news/2090-military-intervention-in-libya-no-thanks





LUDO DE BRABANDER

MILITARY INTERVENTION AND LIBYA

9 MARCH 2011



http://www.vrede.be/news/2089-military-intervention-and-libya



THE SOCIALIST WORKER

WESTERN INTERVENTION IN LIBYA MEANS DEVASTATION AND WAR

26 MARCH 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24282







THE SOCIALIST WORKER

LIBYAN REVOLUTIONARIES SPEAK OUT:

''THE WEST'S WARMACHINE WON'T HELP US

5 MARCH 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24090









[27]



MILITARY ACTIONS AGAINST LIBYA/LIBYAN RESISTANCE MUST RELY ON OWN STRENGTH

ASTRID ESSED



http://la.indymedia.org/news/2011/03/245119.php







THE SOCIALIST WORKER

WESTERN INTERVENTION IN LIBYA MEANS DEVASTATION AND WAR

26 MARCH 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24282





COUNTERPUNCH

THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA

31 AUGUST 2011



http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/





THE SOCIALIST WORKER

LIBYAN REVOLUTIONARIES SPEAK OUT:

''THE WEST'S WARMACHINE WON'T HELP US

5 MARCH 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24090





[28]













WIKIPEDIA

THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_War#The_NATO_bombing_campaign





SOURCE:



WIKIPEDIA

KOSOVO WAR



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_War







AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

NATO VIOLATIONS OF THE LAWS OF WAR DURING OPERATION ALLIED FORCE MUST BE INVESTIGATED

JUNE 2000



http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/EUR70/025/2000/en/b2d0e225-df0f-11dd-953e-5fb92c895266/eur700252000en.html







''The Serbian government and a number of international pressure groups (e.g. Amnesty International) claimed that NATO had carried out war crimes during the conflict, notably the bombing of the Serbian TV headquarters in Belgrade on April 23, 1999, where 16 people were killed and 16 more were injured. Sian Jones of Amnesty stated, "The bombing of the headquarters of Serbian state radio and television was a deliberate attack on a civilian object and as such constitutes a war crime".[139]''



SOURCE

WIKIPEDIA

THE KOSOVO WAR



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_War





''And at the conclusion of the war 200,000 Serbs and Roma were ethnically cleansed by the western-backed Kosovo Liberation Army--creating a virtually monoethnic Kosovo. ''



SOURCE:



THE SOCIALIST REVIEW

WHAT WAS IT GOOD FOR?

MAY 2003





http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=8435





THE SOCIALIST REVIEW

KOSOVO: THE MYTH OF LIBERATION

APRIL 2004



http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=8836









[29]





MILITARY ACTIONS AGAINST LIBYA/LIBYAN RESISTANCE MUST RELY ON OWN STRENGTH

ASTRID ESSED



http://la.indymedia.org/news/2011/03/245119.php









[30]





''A no-fly-zone was installed in the name of protecting civilians that rapidly grew into a bombing campaign which always causes innocent civilian victims. Don't these deaths fall in the category of war crime?''





SOURCE:



LUDO DE BRABANDER

RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT

19 MAY 2011



http://www.vrede.be/news/2121-responsibility-to-protect-





''

A Nato air strike hit a civilian house in Tripoli and killed nine residents, the Libyan regime said yesterday.

Nato admitted on Sunday that its weapons destroyed a house in Tripoli in an incident likely to sow new doubts inside the alliance about its mission in Libya.''

SOURCE:



THE DAILY MAIL

NATO BOMB ''KILL NINE LIBYAN CIVILIANS'' A STRAY AIRSTRIKE IS BLAMED

ON ''SYSTEM FAILURE''

20 JUNE 2011



http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2005472/Libya-War-Nato-bomb-kills-9-civilians-Tripoli-stray-air-strike-blamed-failure.html







THE WASHINGTON POST

NATO CONFIRMS STRIKE HIT WRONG TARGET, KILLING LIBYAN CIVILIANS







http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle-east/nato-says-strike-may-have-killed-libyan-civilians/2011/06/19/AGL7VdbH_story.html





THE GUARDIAN

TRIPOLI AIRSTRIKE KILLED 40 CIVILIANS, CLAIMS VATICAN OFFICIAL

31 MARCH 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/31/tripoli-air-strikes-killed-civilians







BBC

LIBYA SAYS NATO AIR RAIDS ''KILLED 700 CIVILIANS''

31 MAY 2011



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13611132





REUTERS

TRIPOLI SAYS NATO STRIKE KILLS DOZENS OF CIVILIANS

9 AUGUST 2011



http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/09/us-libya-idUSTRE76Q76620110809





THE NEW YORK TIMES

NATO STRIKES AT LIBYA STATE TV

30 JULY 2011



http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/31/world/africa/31tripoli.html?_r=1





CNN

BROTHER OF LIBYA'S INFORMATION MINISTER REPORTED KILLED IN NATO

STRIKE

19 AUGUST 2011



http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/08/18/libya.war/





BBC

WHAT REALLY HAPPENED IN LIBYA'S ZLITAN

11 AUGUST 2011



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14486170





THE DAILY MAIL

BOMBS HIT GADDAFI HOME: NATO STRIKES KILL SON

AND THREE GRANDCHILDREN.........BUT TYRANT NARROWLY ESCAPES

UNHARMED



1 MAY 2011



http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1382341/Libya-Nato-strikes-kill-Gaddafis-son-grandchildren.html





FAIR

LIBYAN DEATHS, MEDIA SILENCE

18 AUGUST 2011



http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=4379





[31]



JUAN LA COLE

AN OPEN LETTER TO THE LEFT ON LIBYA

27 MARCH 2011



http://www.juancole.com/2011/03/an-open-letter-to-the-left-on-libya.html







[32]





THE DIRTY WORK GADDAFI DID FOR THE WEST



SEE NOTES 11 TILL 14











[33]



THE INDEPENDENT

LIBYAN REBELS REJECT AFRICAN UNION PEACE PLAN

11 APRIL 2011





http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/libyan-rebels-reject-african-union-peace-plan-2266294.htm





THE GUARDIAN

LIBYAN REBELS REJECT CHAVEZ MEDIATION OFFER

3 MARCH 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/03/libyan-rebels-reject-hugo-chavez





COUNTERPUNCH

THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA

31 AUGUSTUS 2011



http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/





BBC

WHAT DOES GADDAFI'S DEATH MEAN FOR AFRICA

21 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15392189



[34]











THE NEW YORK TIMES

THE SCRAMBLE FOR ACCESS TO LIBYA OIL WEALTH HAS BEGUN

22 AUGUSTUS 2011



http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/23/business/global/the-scramble-for-access-to-libyas-oil-wealth-begins.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all





FINANCIAL TIMES

REBELS VOW TO OPEN UP LIBYA FOR INVESTMENT

15 JUNI 2011



http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/b97dd138-976d-11e0-af13-00144feab49a.html#axzz1bqUQDRC8





THE SOCIALIST WORKER

OIL FIRMS HIT THE JACKPOT IN LIBYA

1 OCTOBER 2011





http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=26215







LUDO DE BRABANDER

LIBIE: PAYBACK TIME

6 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time





[35]



WARNING

BLOODY PICTURES





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: EVIDENCE SUGGESTS KHAMIS BRIGADE KILLED 45 DETAINEES

29 AUGUSTUS 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/08/29/libya-evidence-suggests-khamis-brigade-killed-45-detainees





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: WARRANTS SEND STRONG MESSAGE TO ABUSIVE LEADERS

27 JUNI 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/06/27/libya-warrants-send-strong-message-abusive-leaders







HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: Q&A ON THE ARREST AND SURRENDER OF THE THREE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT SUSPECTS

26 AUGUSTUS 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/08/26/libya-qa-arrest-and-surrender-three-international-criminal-court-suspects





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: GOVERNMENT USE OF LANDMINES CONFIRMED

30 MAART 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/03/30/libya-government-use-landmines-confirmed





AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE

25 AUGUST 2011



http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25









AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

NO PLACE OF SAFETY

CIVILIANS IN LIBYA UNDER ATTACK

13 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/027/2011/en/12c2a4e5-6c0e-4c90-b32c-5e95ff133581/mde190272011en.pdf















[36]



NATO WAR CRIMES IN LIBYA



SEE NOTE 30



SEE FURTHER:



EURONEWS

TRIPOLI BISHOP SAYS DOZEN OF CIVILIANS KILLED

IN WESTERN AIRSTRIKES

31 MARCH 2011



http://www.euronews.net/2011/03/31/tripoli-bishop-says-dozens-of-civilians-killed-in-western-air-strikes/





''A no-fly-zone was installed in the name of protecting civilians that rapidly grew into a bombing campaign which always causes innocent civilian victims. Don't these deaths fall in the category of war crime? ''





SOURCE:



LUDO DE BRABANDER

RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT

19 MAY 2011



http://www.vrede.be/news/2121-responsibility-to-protect-







SEE ALSO NOTE 30















[37]





''Parties to a conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants in order to

spare civilian population and property. Neither the civilian population as such nor civilian persons shall be the

object of attack. Attacks shall be directed solely against military objectives.''



Artikel 7, Internationaal Humanitair Oorlogsrecht



http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/basic-rules-ihl-311288.htm













[38]





RADIO NETHERLANDS WORLDWIDE

ICC TO INVESTIGATE NATO'S LIBYAN OPERATION

3 NOVEMBER 2011



http://www.rnw.nl/english/bulletin/icc-investigate-natos-libyan-operation





THE TELEGRAPH

LIBYA:

NATO TO BE INVESTIGATED BY ICC FOR WARCRIMES

2 NOVEMBER 2011



http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8866007/Libya-Nato-to-be-investigated-by-ICC-for-war-crimes.html









[39]



BACKGROUND]

MISRATA AND NASUFA MOUNTAINS



As well in Misrata as in the Nasufa Mountains, indiscriminate attacks of

pro Gaddafi troops took place



See







Misrata



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/04/17/libya-indiscriminate-attacks-kill-civilians





Nasufa Mountains



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/05/09/libya-end-indiscriminate-attacks-western-mountain-towns





[40]



WARCRIMES OF THE REBELS

TREATMENT OF PRISONERS





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

APPARENT EXECUTION OF 53 GADDAFI SUPPORTERS

24 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/24/libya-apparent-execution-53-gaddafi-supporters







HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

APPARENT EXECUTION OF 53 GADDAFI SUPPORTERS

24 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/24/libya-apparent-execution-53-gaddafi-supporters





AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

DETENTION ABUSES STAINING THE NEW LIBYA



http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/036/2011/en/e1c30d0f-8ec3-4368-8537-03f1bb15a051/mde190362011en.pdf





AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE

25 AUGUST 2011



http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25







HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: CEASE ARBITRARY ARRESTS, ABUSE OF DETAINEES

30 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/30/libya-cease-arbitrary-arrests-abuse-detainees





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

THE MURDER BRIGADES OF MISRATA

28 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/28/murder-brigades-misrata











[41]





RADIO NETHERLANDS WORLDWIDE

HRW: NO MERCENARIES IN EASTERN LIBYA

2 MARCH 2011



http://www.rnw.nl/africa/article/hrw-no-mercenaries-eastern-libya-0





''The “African mercenary” myth, as put into deadly, racist practice, is a fact that paradoxically has been both documented and ignored. Months ago I provided an extensive review of the role of the mainstream media, led by Al Jazeera, as well as the seeding of social media, in creating the African mercenary myth. Among the departures from the norm of vilifying Sub-Saharan Africans and black Libyans that instead documented the abuse of these civilians, were the Los Angeles Times, Human Rights Watch which found no evidence of any mercenaries at all in eastern Libya (totally contradicting the claims presented as truth by Al Arabiya and The Telegraph, among others such as TIME and The Guardian).''



SOURCE



COUNTERPUNCH

THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA

31 AUGUSTUS 2011



http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/











[42]



WARCRIMES OF THE REBELS

POGROMS AGAINST AFRICAN MIGRANT WORKERS AND BLACK

LIBYANS [DESCENTS OF FORMER SLAVES]

















HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: STOP ARBITRARY ARRESTS OF BLACK AFRICANS

4 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/04/libya-stop-arbitrary-arrests-black-africans







AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

DETENTION ABUSES STAINING THE NEW LIBYA



http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/036/2011/en/e1c30d0f-8ec3-4368-8537-03f1bb15a051/mde190362011en.pdf







HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: MILITIAS TERRORIZING RESIDENTS OF ''LOYALIST'' TOWN

30 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/30/libya-militias-terrorizing-residents-loyalist-town





''

But black Africans have also been rounded up as alleged mercenaries, on little or no evidence, without being given access to a lawyer.

I saw several dozen of them today being driven through Tripoli, hands bound, blindfolded with cloths of Gaddafi green, in the back of trucks with welded-on anti-aircraft cannon and heavy machine guns.''



BBC

GADDAFI DEATH: THE BLOODY BIRTH OF A NEW LIBYA

22 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15416019





AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

TAWARGHAS MUST BE PROTECTED FROM REPRISALS AND ARBITRARY ARREST

IN LIBYA

7 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/tawarghas-must-be-protected-reprisals-and-arbitrary-arrest-libya-2011-09-07









THE ECONOMIST

LIBYA'S BLACK REFUGEES

CAUGHT IN THE MIDDLE

5 MAY 2011



http://www.economist.com/node/18652159?story_id=18652159





FORTRESS EUROPE

REVOLUTIONAIRIES AND RACISTS? THE REBELS' MASSACRES NO ONE WANTS TO TALK ABOUT

19 MAY 2011



http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2011/05/revolutionaries-and-racists-rebels.html



One Turkish construction worker told the BBC: "We had 70-80 people from Chad working for our company. They were cut dead with pruning shears and axes, attackers saying: 'You are providing troops for Gaddafi.' The Sudanese were also massacred. We saw it for ourselves."

Libya's new forces for change have simply picked up where the colonel left off his bloodletting.''

SOURCE

BBC

AFRICAN VIEWPOINT: COLONEL'S CONTINENT?

25 FEBRUARY 2011



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12585395



STR8TALK CHRONICLE

LIBYAN INSURGENTS KILL TWO NIGERIANS

19 MARCH 2011



http://str8talkchronicle.com/?p=13153









AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE

25 AUGUST 2011



http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25



[43]





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: MILITIAS TERRORIZING RESIDENTS OF ''LOYALIST'' TOWN

30 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/30/libya-militias-terrorizing-residents-loyalist-town





[44]





FORTRESS EUROPE

REVOLUTIONAIRIES AND RACISTS? THE REBELS' MASSACRES NO ONE WANTS TO TALK ABOUT

19 MAY 2011



http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2011/05/revolutionaries-and-racists-rebels.html



One Turkish construction worker told the BBC: "We had 70-80 people from Chad working for our company. They were cut dead with pruning shears and axes, attackers saying: 'You are providing troops for Gaddafi.' The Sudanese were also massacred. We saw it for ourselves."

Libya's new forces for change have simply picked up where the colonel left off his bloodletting.''

SOURCE:

BBC

AFRICAN VIEWPOINT: COLONEL'S CONTINENT?

25 FEBRUARY 2011



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12585395



STR8TALK CHRONICLE

LIBYAN INSURGENTS KILL TWO NIGERIANS

19 MARCH 2011



http://str8talkchronicle.com/?p=13153





AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE

25 AUGUST 2011



http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-must-protect-detainees-torture-2011-08-25





AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

TAWARGHAS MUST BE PROTECTED FROM REPRISALS AND ARBITRARY ARREST

IN LIBYA

7 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/tawarghas-must-be-protected-reprisals-and-arbitrary-arrest-libya-2011-09-07





[45]





FORTRESS EUROPE

REVOLUTIONAIRIES AND RACISTS? THE REBELS' MASSACRES NO ONE WANTS TO TALK ABOUT

19 MAY 2011



http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2011/05/revolutionaries-and-racists-rebels.html







[46]





''The “African mercenary” myth, as put into deadly, racist practice, is a fact that paradoxically has been both documented and ignored. Months ago I provided an extensive review of the role of the mainstream media, led by Al Jazeera, as well as the seeding of social media, in creating the African mercenary myth. Among the departures from the norm of vilifying Sub-Saharan Africans and black Libyans that instead documented the abuse of these civilians, were the Los Angeles Times, Human Rights Watch which found no evidence of any mercenaries at all in eastern Libya (totally contradicting the claims presented as truth by Al Arabiya and The Telegraph, among others such as TIME and The Guardian).''





SOURCE:





COUNTERPUNCH

THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA

31 AUGUST 2011



http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-against-libya/







[47]





AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL

DETENTION ABUSES STAINING THE NEW LIBYA



http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/036/2011/en/e1c30d0f-8ec3-4368-8537-03f1bb15a051/mde190362011en.pdf







[48]





SEE NOTE 35





[49]









LUDO DE BRABANDER

LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME

6 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time





BBC

WHAT DOES GADDAFI'S DEATH MEAN FOR AFRICA

21 OCTOBER 2011



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15392189





[50]







LUDO DE BRABANDER

LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME

6 SEPTEMBER 2011



http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time





[51]





HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

TUNISIA: DON'T EXTRADITE FORMER PRIME MINISTER TO LIBYA

9 NOVEMBER 2011



http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/09/tunisia-don-t-extradite-former-prime-minister-libya



























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