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Riots in England/Uprising of the unheard

by Astrid Essed Thursday, Sep. 08, 2011 at 3:08 PM

In contrary with the mainstream media and the British politicians, the 2011 riots in England are no ''mindless violence'', but a clear protest against the years of social unjustice and racist police violence







RIOTS IN ENGLAND/UPRISING OF THE UNHEARD







RIOTS ARE THE VOICE OF THE UNHEARD

Martin Luther King



http://quotationsbook.com/quote/34458/





''Whilst many seek to pin the blame on the inevitable result of decades of oppression in under-privileged communities, the causes of the riots are swept under the rugs looted from Carpet Right. Inequality is at the heart of this. As long as the police see themselves as above the law, young people will take it into their own hands.''



JODY MCINTYRE/FROM BRIXTON TO TOTTENHAM



http://jodymcintyre.wordpress.com/2011/08/08/from-brixton-to-tottenham-the-inequality-at-the-heart-of-the-riots/



WE ARE NO LONGER WILLING TO PUT UP WITH POLICE BRUTALITY OR RACISM



ALONDRA NELSON ON TWITTER





Dear Editor and readers,



SUMMARY:





In contrary with the British politicians and mainstream media, the riots in England are no ''mindless violence'' and ''criminal acts'', but the direct consequence of government cuts, which are especially damaging to poor neighbourhoods. decennialong social deprivation and often unpunished police violence.

The methods [burning and looting] are wrong, the deadly victims unacceptable, but the fury about the yearlong police violence and the social injustice is legitimate

This is the resistance of the unheard and humiliated, as Martin Luther King has stated [1]



TIMELINE



The riots were short, but vehement and took place from 6 untill 10th of august 2011 [2]

What started in the multicultural underprivileged neighbourhood Tottenham [London North] as a peaceful protest against the police shooting of Mark Duggan [3], became a real uprising and spread in and outside London, especially in ciies in the Midlands and North West of England [4]



Those riots, which started in Tottenham, are often compared with the Tottenham riots, which took place in 1985

Direct cause was also a death by police violence

Also in this case the viictim was black



Tottenham/October 1985

The Broadwater Farm riots



After the arrest of a young black man, Floyd Jarrett, his house was been searched by the police, which led to a confrontation between the police and Jarrets family members.

In the commotion, his 49-year-old mother, Cynthia Jarrett, fell over and died almost instantly

Later the police was criticized about the way the home searching took place [5]

After the death of Cynthia Jarrett the socalled Broadwater Farm riots spread, which costed the life of a policeman, Keith Blakelock [6]



A week before the death of Cynthia Jarrett another black woman, Dorothy Cherry Groce, was shot in her home by the police and was paralysed below the waist for the rest of her life

The direct cause was the police searching of her son Michael Groce, who was suspected of fitearms offence

Her shooting was followed by the Brixton riots in 1985 [7]



Tottenham 2011



Direct cause was the police shooting of Mark Duggan, a father of four at 4th august in an attempt to arrest him.

The police sho shot him were part of the Specialist Firearms Command [CO19], accompanying officers from ''Operation Trident'', a London Metropolitan police Unit which deals with ''guncrime in the black community''

Immediately after the fatal shooting the police spread the runour [which was promoted by the media], that Duggan had fired at the police.

However, ballistic investigation showed, that Duggan didn't fire at the police at all [8]



What really infuriated the people was the lack of respect the police showed to a peaceful protest of family and friends of Mark Duggan to Tottenham Police Station

No information whatsoever had been given about the cause of his death

The parents of Mark Duggan found out how he died from the press

Two days later [9]





REACTION OF THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT AND POLITICIANS ON THE RIOTS

MORAL DECLINE?

WHOSE?



Members of Parliament:



Striking is, that all British political parties, from conservative to ''progressive'' left were unanimous in condemning the riots as ''criminal'' or ''mindless'' [10]

Often without any reference to underlying causes or the fact, that this was no isolated outburst of fury, but based on years of protests from mainly black underprivileged neighbourhoods

Those who did refer to social backgrounds [like financial cuts], nevertheless called for extreme measures to end the riots [11]

A courageous reaction came fron Labour MP John Mc Donnel, who stated:

''“MPs and their expenses, bankers and their bonuses, tax evading corporations” had created a “society of looters”. [12]



State/Government:



It was no suprise, that State reaction was extremely repressive

Prime minister Cameron laid all ugly cards on the table



He called the rioters ''criminals'' and the riots ''moral decline''

He spoke about ''culture of fear in the streets'', neglecting the fact, that the years of violent police action had caused a culture of fear among the inhabitants of underprivileged black neighbourhoods



His measures were tough enough

16000 policemen were sent to London

He threatened to use the watercannon, which was never used in England [although it was a common measure of repression in Northern Ireland]

The use of the rubber bullet also belonged to the possibilities

His most extreme statement was, that the police was free to use ''all means necessary'' [13]



Yet apart from his repressive means he uses the riots as an excuse to promote extreme police measures [14]





REACTION OF THE BRITISH PRESS



The British press followed the politicians like slaves

Agan, from ''progressive'' to conservative press, an unanimous condemnation of the riots, often without any reference to the underlying causes [15]

Besides silly comments from the conservative press [criminality, moral decline], the socalled ''progressive'' paper The Guardian used law and order language in her ''statement'' to the public to back the police [16]



The Independent was less worse, but not good enough

Although they uttered police and society criticism, any relation between police violence/social problems and the riots was denied.

They called the riots ''mindless violence'', a stupid comment, since there was no reference to underlying causes [17]



One could compare the reaction of the press with those media, which commented the 11 september attacks without any reference to the deeper lying causes [18]



True exceptions:

The Socialist Worker, the Morning Star and anarchist comments



Between all those negative press reaction, there were two good exceptions, the Socialist Worker and the Morning Star, which DID comment on the years of social deprivation, government cuts, racism and police violence, which had created the riots

They placed it in historical perspective by pointing out, that the 2011 riots didn't come out of the sky, but had a background, from the eighties of the former century [19]

But those are no mainstream media, but stemmed from the resistance, which is not bound by parliamentary ties

From anarchist view there also was fundamental criticism [20]





CAUSES OF THE RIOTS

''MINDLESS VIOLENCE'' OR LEGITIMATE RESISTANCE?





''''WE ARE NO LONGER WILLING TO PUT UP WITH POLICE BRUTALITY OR RACISM''

Alondra Nelson [Twitter]



Politicians and press were in a competition to scream about the ''criminal character'' of the riots, ''mobs out of control'', ''gangsters'', mindless violence, etc, etc

Causes didn't play any part, the death of Mark Duggan had nothing to do with it

And more of that nonsense



But reality shows another cup of soup:



Of course it is not by chance, that riots have their origin in poor, underprivileged areas as Tottenham, which are plagued by great poverty, unemployment and lack of perspective, especially for young people.

Recently in Tottenham eight of the twelve youth facilities were closed.



Add to that racism and systematic police violence with often a racist nature and you have your ingredients for riots [21]



RIOTS/HISTORICAL OVERVIEW



Since the early eigthies [of the former century] anti racist and socio economical riots took place, often clashes between black youth and the police, but also white youth take part, since they are victims of the same social deprivation

In most cases, direct cause is police violence or an inedequate police investigation after racist violence against black people

Underlying causes are the socio economical problems.

It is not by chance, that looting is directed against the big stores like Sony and banks [22]





FRENCH RIOTS/LOS ANGELES RIOTS

SAME CAUSE, SAME STRUGGLE



A tight comparision is made with the French riots in 2005 and 2007 and even the Los Angeles riots in 1992

As well the French as LA riots stemmed from the same origin

Poverty, a lack of perspective, high youth unemployment

Direct causes were also police violence

In the french case, Amnesty International sharply criticized police violence and impunity [23]



CULTURE OF FEAR IN THE STREETS

POLICE VIOLENCE



Police violence is one of the greatest sources for riots and is often directed against blacks, although not only

Causes lie often in racism AND in the fact, that most ''coloured'' people live in underprevileged neigbourhoods, where tensions and frustrations are bog because of structural poverty

Investigation shows, that black people have 25 times the chance to be controlled by the police

The cases of violent police confrontation are alarming

Mark Duggan, Cynthia Jarrett, Cynthia Jarrett and Dorothy Groce are the top of the iceberg [24]

The last ten years, at least 650 people died in police custody [25]



NOT RIOTS, BUT THIS POLICE VIOLENCE CREATE A ''CULTURE OF FEAR''



DEVASTATING FOR THE POLICE

UNMASKING POLICE VIOLENCE

REPORTS SCARMAN/GIFFORD/MACPHERSON



Two reports about police violence were revealing, the Scarman report [1981] following the Brixton riots in 1981 and the Gifford report [1986] following Broadwater Farm riots in 1985

Although the riots were condemned, both reports revealed serious police racism and prejudice

The Gifford report even did a proposal for reforms of the police

So did the MacPherson report [1999], which was created following the death of Stephen Lawrence [26]





IMPUNITY OF POLICE VIOLENCE



What makes people furious is the impunity of the police violence

Investigations take place and reports are written.



HOWEVER, THE LAST 40 YEARS NO POLICE OFFICER HAS FOUND GUILTY OF ANY DEATH IN CUSTODY, DESPITE THE GREAT NUMBER

THE SAME IS THE CASE REGARDING POLICE SHOOTING INCIDENTS

In case of the death of Cyntrhia Jarrett, no police officer has been charged, in the Cherry Groce case the police officer involved has been acquitted.

The same old story with regard to other shooting incidents [27]





DEATH OF A POLICEMAN/NO MOUNTAIN TO HIGH......



However, when a police officer is killed, all hell breaks loose.

During the Broadwater Farm riots in 1985, police officer Blakelock had been killed [28]

Police maintained a substantial presence on the estate for several months, arresting and interrogating 400 people.

Eventually 6 men were charged, three minors and three adults.

The juveniles all had their cases dismissed after the judge ruled the conditions in which they had been held were so inappropriate that their interrogation was inadmissible - conditions included being questioned naked except for a blanket, which was cruel and inhumane, and being questioned without a guardian [29]

Eventually three adults [Winston Silcott, Engin Raghip en Mark Braithwaite ] were convicted to lifelong imprisonment despite no witnesses and limited forensic evidence.

The Tottenham Three are Innocent Campaign and the Broadwater Farm Defence Campaign pressed for a retrial. On 25 November 1991, all three defendants were cleared by the Court of Appeal when an ESDA test [30] demonstrated police notes of interrogations (the only evidence) had been tampered with. [31]





DOUBLE STANDARDS



Double standards, regarding human lives

For any loss of human life deserves the same justice, regardless the victim

Any human being has the right to life and dignity



EPILOGUE:



The riots are over after State hugh repression

16000 policemen were sent to London, the use of the watercannon and baton rounds has been considered, there were mass arrests of 1500 people, mass home searches and harsh sentences by the Courts [32]



However, nothing has been solved, when the State only reacts with repression and lack of respect for the fundamental rights of any human being, regardless descent



The right to life

The right to be free from poverty

The right to live in dignity



When the State doesn't respect those rights and only reacts with repression, when the police is not reformed, the next riots are on their way, when time is ripe



Moral decline there is for sure

But then from the side of the State and police





Kind greetings



Astrid Essed

Amsterdam

The Netherlands













[1]





RIOTS ARE THE VOICES OF THE UNHEARD

MARTIN LUTHER KING



http://quotationsbook.com/quote/34458/





[2]





WIKIPEDIA

2011 ENGLAND RIOTS



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots





BBC NEWS

TIMELINE AND MAP OF VIOLENCE



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14436499





BBC NEWS

ENGLAND RIOTS



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14452097



WIKIPEDIA

TIMELINE OF 2011 ENGLISH RIOTS



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_2011_England_riots









[3]





POLICE SHOOTING OF MARK DUGGAN



WIKIPEDIA

2011 ENGLAND RIOTS

POLICE SHOOTING OF MARK DUGGAN



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots#Police_shooting_of_Mark_Duggan



Source:



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots





WIKIPEDIA

DEATH OF MARK DUGGAN



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_of_Mark_Duggan





LONDON EVENING STANDARD

NO EVIDENCE THAT MARK DUGGAN SHOT AT POLICE, SAYS IPPC

10TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/standard/article-23976974-no-evidence-that-mark-duggan-shot-at-police-says-ipcc.do







[4]



THE GUARDIAN

TOTTENHAM RIOTS: A PEACEFUL PROTEST, THEN SUDDENLY ALL HELL BROKE LOOSE

7TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/07/tottenham-riots-peaceful-protest





THE SOCIALIST WORKER

HOW THE RIOTS SPREAD ACROSS BRITAIN

13TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25682





[5]





THE GUARDIAN

ANGER SMOULDERS IN TOTTENHAM: THE BROADWATER FARM RIOTS OF 1985



http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/from-the-archive-blog/2011/aug/08/anger-tottenham-broadwater-riots-1985?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487





See also



25 YEARS: A RIOTOUS ANNIVERSARY



http://www.hlstudios.eu.com/hlblog/lang/en/25-years-a-riotous-anniversary/





THE SOCIALIST WORKER

TOTTENHAM-A PROUD HISTORY OF RESISTANCE

9THAUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25658



DEATH OF CYNTHIA JARRETT



WIKIPEDIA

BROADWATER FARM RIOT



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot





CONDEMNATION OF POLICE CONDUCT



''The local council leader, Bernie Grant, later condemned the search and urged the local police chiefs to resign immediately as their behaviour had been "out of control".[



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot#Death_of_Cynthia_Jarrett



Source:



WIKIPEDIA

BROADWATER FARM RIOT



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot



SEE ALSO:





''In a statement issued after he had heard rioting had begun Haringey's black mayor, Mr Bernie Grant, said: 'For the second time in a week, a black woman had been killed by officers of the state. Police behaviour is totally unacceptable. The force is out of control. ''



THE GUARDIAN

POLICEMAN KILLED IN RIOT

7TH OCTOBER 1985

STREET VIOLENCE IN TOTTENHAM, NORTH LONDON



http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/1985/oct/07/ukcrime.garethparry









[6]





THE GUARDIAN

POLICEMAN KILLED IN RIOT

7TH OCTOBER 1985

STREET VIOLENCE IN TOTTENHAM, NORTH LONDON



http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/1985/oct/07/ukcrime.garethparry





[7]





''A black woman, Cherry Groce, had been shot by police a week earlier in Brixton. ''





WIKIPEDIA

BROADWATER FARM RIOT



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot





THE MIRROR

CHERRY GROCE, WHOSE SHOOTING BY POLICE SPARKED THE BRIXTON RIOTS, DIES AGED 63

30TH APRIL 2011



http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/top-stories/2011/04/30/cherry-groce-whose-shooting-by-police-sparked-the-brixton-riots-dies-aged-63-115875-23095667/





BBC

1985/ RIOTS IN BRIXTON AFTER POLICE SHOOTING



http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/28/newsid_2540000/2540397.stm







BBC

1987: OFFICER CLEARED IN GROCE SHOOTING CASE





http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/15/newsid_2530000/2530537.stm





DEATH OF CYNTHIA JARRETT



'' The inquest found that Jarrett had died accidentally. No police officers were charged or disciplined for her death.''



WIKIPEDIA

BROADWATER FARM RIOT



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot









''

Insp Douglas Lovelock, who shot Mrs Groce, was cleared of criminal charges in 1987.''



Source:



BBC

1985/ RIOTS IN BRIXTON AFTER POLICE SHOOTING



http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/28/newsid_2540000/2540397.stm





[8]



DEATH OF MARK DUGGAN





THE GUARDIAN

MARK DUGGAN: PROFILE OF TOTTENHAM POLICE SHOOTING VICTIM

8TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/08/mark-duggan-profile-tottenham-shooting



THE GUARDIAN

LONDON RIOTS: MARK DUGGAN DIED OF GUNSHOT WOUND TO CHEST, INQUEST TOLD

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/09/london-riots-mark-duggan-inquest





THE SOCIALIST WORKER

HOW POLICE KILLED MARK DUGGAN

13TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25690





IPPC [INDEPENDENT POLICE COMPLAINT COMMISSION]

UPDATE ON MARK DUGGAN INVESTIGATION INCLUDING DETAILS OF BALLISTIC TESTS

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.ipcc.gov.uk/news/Pages/pr_090811_dugganupdate.aspx





THE GUARDIAN

MARK DUGGAN DIDN'T SHOOT AT POLICE, SAYS IPCC

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/09/mark-duggan-police-ipcc?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487









THE GUARDIAN

LONDON RIOTS: THE FAMILY OF MARK DUGGAN SAYS IT HAS NO TRUST IN THE IPCC

14TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/14/mark-duggan-family-ipcc-met-police-tottenham-riots





[9]



THE SOCIALIST WORKER

HOW POLICE KILLED MARK DUGGAN

13TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25690





''But Lammy [British MP/Addition Astrid Essed] did suggest that the police could have handled the situation in Tottenham better. "There are questions about the nature of the escalation of this violence last night, and the nature of the policing that led up to it," he said. "I am concerned that what was a peaceful protest turned into this."



THE GUARDIAN

POLITICIANS CONDEMN TOTTENHAM RIOTS

7TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2011/aug/07/politicians-condemn-tottenham-riots









[10]



THE GUARDIAN

POLITICIANS CONDEMN TOTTENHAM RIOTS

7TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2011/aug/07/politicians-condemn-tottenham-riots





THE SOCIALIST WORKER

RIOTS: THE VOICE OF THE UNHEARD

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25656





WIKIPEDIA

POLITICAL



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots#Political



Source:



WIKIPEDIA

2011 ENGLAND RIOTS



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots



THE SOCIALIST WORKER

POLITICIANS ARE THE REAL LOOTERS

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25684





[11]





''Labour MP Ken Livingstone did talk about the damage that government cuts have done to young people. But then he called for more police—and even the use of water cannon on the streets. They have never been used in mainland Britain.''



THE SOCIALIST WORKER

POLITICIANS ARE THE REAL LOOTERS

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25684



''

I am concerned that there is growing social dislocation in London and a threat that the police will be forced into escalating conflict with some London communities. We do not want to go back to the 1980s.

The economic stagnation and cuts being imposed by the Tory government inevitably create social division.''



WEBLOG LIVINGSTONE

KEN LIVINGSTONE STATEMENT ON TOTTENHAM RIOTS



http://www.labourlist.org/ken-livingstone-statement-on-tottenham-riots





[12]



''John McDonnell MP pointed to the real problems in society. He said, “MPs and their expenses, bankers and their bonuses, tax evading corporations” had created a “society of looters”.



Source:



THE SOCIALIST WORKER

POLITICIANS ARE THE REAL LOOTERS

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25684





THE GUARDIAN

PROFILE JOHN MC DONNEL



http://www.guardian.co.uk/profile/johnmcdonnell





WEBSITE JOHN MC DONNEL



http://www.john-mcdonnell.net/



ACTIVITIES IN PARLIAMENT



http://www.john-mcdonnell.net/parliament/john-in-parliament/













[13]





THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD

NO CULTURE OF FEAR IN UK STREETS: CAMERON

11TH AUGUST 2011



http://news.smh.com.au/breaking-news-world/no-culture-of-fear-on-uk-streets-cameron-20110811-1in72.html





THE SCOTSMAN

LONDON RIOTS: 16000 POLICE ON STREETS TONIGHT

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://news.scotsman.com/news/London-riots-16000-police-on.6815647.jp





THE GUARDIAN

LONDON RIOTS: POLICE WILL USE BATON ROUNDS IF NECESSARY, WARNS MET

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/09/london-riots-police-baton-rounds





THE GUARDIAN

DAVID CAMERON: POLICE CAN USE WATERCANNON TO CONTROL RIOTS

10TH AUGUST 2011





http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/10/david-cameron-water-cannon-police-riots







THE GUARDIAN

NOW IT IS NOT THE TIME TO USE WATERCANNON AND BATON ROUNDS

10TH AUGUSTUS 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/aug/10/water-cannons-baton-rounds-hugh-orde?intcmp=239



Cameron said the police have been authorized to use whatever means necessary to combat "despicable violence," with plans in place for water cannon to be available within 24 hours if needed, he said.



Source





LOS ANGELES TIMES

DAVID CAMERON SAYS ''FIGHTBACK'' AGAINST LOOTING IS UNDER WAY

10TH AUGUST 2011





http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fgw-london-riot-fightback-20110810%2c0%2c1577489%2cfull.story







THE SOCIALIST WORKER

MORE POLICE MEANS MORE TROUBLE

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25685





[14]



THE SOCIALIST WORKER

CAMERON USES RIOTS AS AN EXCUSE TO CRACK DOWN

11TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25695





[15]





REACTION OF THE PRESS



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots#Press





Source:





WIKIPEDIA

2011 ENGLAND RIOTS



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_England_riots





[16]



Britain's 2011 riots have become a defining contest between disorder and order. In that contest, important caveats notwithstanding, there is only one right side to be on. The attacks, the destruction, the criminality and the reign of fear must be stopped. The rule of law in the cities of Britain must not only be defended against delinquent destruction. It must also be enforced. There can be arguments about wider issues later. Today, in this moment of threat, the necessary position is to stand behind the police.''



THE GUARDIAN

URBAN RIOTS: THE BATTLE FOR THE STREETS

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/aug/09/urban-riots-battle-streets-editorial







[17]



Attempts to trace this outbreak of lawlessness to deprivation and the social marginalisation of Britain's inner-city youth need to be handled with care. A lack of economic opportunity and aspiration in our inner cities is unquestionably a problem that local and political leaders must address. But it is spurious to draw a connection between that disaffection and specific outbreaks of violence of the sort we have seen in recent days.''



THE INDEPENDENT

THE LESSONS TO BE DRAWN FROM MINDLESS VIOLENCE

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/leading-articles/leading-article-the-lessons-to-be-drawn-from-mindless-violence-2333987.html







[18]



''And hereby the very causes of the 11 september attacks are revealed

The Western dominance in the Middle East [including support for Israel] and the committed warcrimes in Afghanistan and Iraq, which stay unpunished given the balance of power, as the unpunished Israeli crimes in occupied Palestine.

Terrorism is not the Evil, but the reaction on the Evil''





INDYMEDIA CHICAGO

OSAMA BIN LADEN KILLED BY US TROOPS/NO JUSTICE WITHOUT A TRIAL

10TH MAY 2011



http://chicago.indymedia.org/newswire/display/94038/index.php











[19]









''This is what happens in a society of deep and growing inequality, where there are great pools of unemployment and poverty, where there is systematic police harassment and racism, and where many young people feel they have no future.''



THE SOCIALIST WORKER

WHY PEOPLE ARE RIOTING

13TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25645





''

This is not a revolution.

This is a primal scream against years of oppression. ''





MORNING STAR

TINDERBOX BRITAIN

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.morningstaronline.co.uk/news/content/view/full/108079





[20]





WORKERS SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT

CAUSES & CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIOTS: AN ANARCHIST PERSPECTIVE

13TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.wsm.ie/c/london-riots-causes-consequences-anarchist





[21]



THE SOCIALIST WORKER

WHY PEOPLE ARE RIOTING

13TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25645



THE SOCIALIST WORKER

POVERTY AND RACISM SHAPE LIFE IN TOTTENHAM

13TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25691





THE SOCIALIST WORKER

DEEP ANGER THAT SPARKED A RIOT

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25688'





THE GUARDIAN

LOOTING FUELED BY SOCIAL EXCLUSION

8TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/08/looting-fuelled-by-social-exclusion?intcmp=239





WORKERS SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT

LONDON BURNS: CAUSES & CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIOTS-AN ANARCHIST PERSPECTIVE

13TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.wsm.ie/c/london-riots-causes-consequences-anarchist





FROM BRIXTON TO TOTTENHAM, THE INEQUALITY AT THE HEART OF THE RIOTS

JODY MCINTYRE

8TH AUGUST 2011



http://jodymcintyre.wordpress.com/2011/08/08/from-brixton-to-tottenham-the-inequality-at-the-heart-of-the-riots/





THE SOCIALIST WORKER

RIOTS: THE VOICE OF THE UNHEARD

13TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25656





[22]





HISTORY OF THE RIOTS



THE GUARDIAN

TOTTENHAM: ECHOES OF A HISTORY NOT FORGOTTEN AS RIOTING RETURNS

7TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/07/tottenham-history-rioting?intcmp=239



RIOTS IN ENGLAND



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1995_Brixton_riot





1980 St. Pauls riot · 1981 England riots · 1981 Brixton riot · 1981 Chapeltown race riot · 1981 Toxteth riots · 1981 Moss Side riot · Handsworth race riots · 1985 Brixton riot · 1985 Broadwater Farm riot · 1987 Chapeltown race riot · 1989 Dewsbury race riot









THE SOCIALIST WORKER

ALEX WHEATLE: THE ANGER THAT CAUSED RIOTS HAS NEVER GONE AWAY

9TH AUGUSTUS 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25683





[23]



AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL ABOUT POLICE VIOLENCE IN FRANCE AND POLICE IMPUNITY



AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL



THE SEARCH FOR JUSTICE:

THE EFFECTIVE IMPUNITY OF LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS IN CASES OF SHOOTINGS, DEATHS IN CUSTODY OR TORTURE AND ILL TREATMENT

5TH APRIL 2005



http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/EUR21/001/2005/en/33ee48f6-d535-11dd-8a23-d58a49c0d652/eur210012005en.html



BBC TIMELINE FRENCH RIOTS OF 2005



http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4413964.stm





FRENCH RIOTS IN 2005



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2005_civil_unrest_in_France



FRENCH RIOTS IN 2007



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007_civil_unrest_in_France





And so conditions were ripe for violence in France's immigrant suburbs when two teenagers of African origin were accidentally electrocuted in October 2005 while hiding from police.



http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/paris_riots/





Then, in November 2007, two teens were killed in a crash with a police patrol car in the Paris suburb of Villiers-le-Bel.



http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/paris_riots/





LOS ANGELES RIOTS 1992



BBC

1992: LA IN FLAMES AFTER ''NOT GUILTY'' VERDICT



http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/29/newsid_2500000/2500471.stm





WIKIPEDIA

1992 LOS ANGELES RIOTS



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1992_Los_Angeles_riots





[24]



THE MORNING STAR

TINDERBOX BRITAIN

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.morningstaronline.co.uk/news/content/view/full/108079



WORKERS SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT

LONDON BURNS: CAUSES & CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIOTS-AN ANARCHIST PERSPECTIVE

13TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.wsm.ie/c/london-riots-causes-consequences-anarchist









THE SOCIALIST WORKER

WHY PEOPLE ARE RIOTING

13TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25645





[25]



THE MORNING STAR

TINDERBOX BRITAIN

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.morningstaronline.co.uk/news/content/view/full/108079





WORKERS SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT

LONDON BURNS: CAUSES & CONSEQUENCES OF THE RIOTS-AN ANARCHIST PERSPECTIVE

13TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.wsm.ie/c/london-riots-causes-consequences-anarchist





INQUEST

DEATH IN POLICE CUSTODY



http://inquest.gn.apc.org/website/statistics/deaths-in-police-custody





[26]





SCARMAN REPORT [1981]



BBC

1981: BRIXTION RIOTS REPORT BLAMES RACIAL TENSION



http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/25/newsid_2546000/2546233.stm



BBC

1981: BRIXTON RIOTS REPORT BLAMES RACIAL TENSION



http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/25/newsid_2546000/2546233.stm



THE SOCIALIST REVIEW

CAN THE POLICE BE REFORMED?



http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/sr228/morgan.htm



GIFFORD REPORT [1986]



''Just a few years later this led to another explosion of anger with the riot on the Broadwater Farm estate in Tottenham following the death of local resident Cynthia Jarrett during a police raid. The riot was led by local black people, but it also involved local whites, and the anger was again directed against the police. The government set up an independent inquiry into the riot, chaired by Lord Gifford QC. This report also stressed the need to improve local facilities, tackle unemployment and increase spending. But its criticisms of the police were much harder than the Scarman Report. On the issue of racism it said, 'We call for a ruthless determination to eradicate racism from the police force... ''



Bron:



THE SOCIALIST REVIEW

CAN THE POLICE BE REFORMED?



http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/sr228/morgan.htm







THE MACPHERSON REPORT





BBC

RACE: THE MACPHERSON REPORT



http://news.bbc.co.uk/news/vote2001/hi/english/main_issues/sections/facts/newsid_1190000/1190971.stm





THE GUARDIAN

THE MACPHERSON REPORT: SUMMARY

Macpherson's 70 proposals to take on our 'institutionally racist' police

24TH FEBRUARY 1999



http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/1999/feb/24/lawrence.ukcrime12





WIKIPEDIA

DEATH OF STEPHEN LAWRENCE



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_of_Stephen_Lawrence









WIKIPEDIA

THE BRIXTON RIOTS 1981



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1981_Brixton_riot







METROPOLITAN POLICE

BRIXTON RIOTS 1981



http://www.met.police.uk/history/brixton_riots.htm

















[27]



''No police officer has been found guilty of a death in custody in the past 40 years, despite deaths averaging one a week. ''



THE SOCIALIST WORKER

WHY PEOPLE ARE RIOTING

13TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25645





THE SOCIALIST WORKER

SHOT IN THE HEAD, DEAD AFTER AN ARREST: THE POLICE COVER UPS

13 AUGUSTUS 2011



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25660





DEATH OF CYNTHIA JARRETT



''No police officers were charged or disciplined for her death.''



WIKIPEDIA

BROADWATER FARM RIOT



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot





THE DEATH OF CHERRY GROCE

BBC

OFFICER CLEARED IN GROCE SHIOOTING CASE



http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/15/newsid_2530000/2530537.stm





WIKIPEDIA

CHERRY GROCE



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherry_Groce





[28]



WIKIPEDIA



DEATH OF PC BLAKELOCK



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot#Death_of_PC_Blakelock



Source:



WIKIPEDIA



BROADWATER FARM RIOT



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot





WIKIPEDIA

THE MURDER OF KEITH BLAKELOCK



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_Keith_Blakelock





[29]



TRIALS



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot#Trials



Source:



WIKIPEDIA



BROADWATER FARM RIOT



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot



THE SOCIALIST WORKER

TRUTH ABLOUT BROADWATER FARM RIOT AND THE KILLING OF PC BLAKELOCK

16TH FEBRUARY 2010



http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=20276







[30]



ESDA test



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrostatic_detection_device





[31]



''Three adults, Winston Silcott, Engin Raghip and Mark Braithwaite, were convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment despite no witnesses and limited forensic evidence[citation needed]. The Tottenham Three are Innocent Campaign and the Broadwater Farm Defence Campaign pressed for a retrial. On 25 November 1991, all three defendants were cleared by the Court of Appeal when an ESDA test demonstrated police notes of interrogations (the only evidence) had been tampered with. Braithwaite and Raghip were released after four years in prison. Silcott remained in prison for the separate murder of another man, Tony Smith. He was released on licence in 2003 after serving eighteen years for that crime. The officer in charge of the interrogation was cleared of perjury.''





TRIALS



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot#Trials



Soirce:



WIKIPEDIA



BROADWATER FARM RIOT



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadwater_Farm_riot



''

Back in 1985, hundreds of young black men were interviewed in connection with PC Blakelock's death.

Winston Silcott, Engin Raghip and Mark Braithwaite were convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment.

Following a campaign by the Broadwater Farm Defence, the Broadwater Three were found not guilty by the Court of Appeal.

Police notes of the suspect interrogations - the only evidence - had been tampered with. ''





THE MORNING STAR

TINDERBOX BRITAIN

9TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.morningstaronline.co.uk/news/content/view/full/108079





[32]



BBC

SOME ENGLAND RIOTS SENTENCES ''TOO SEVERE''

17TH AUGUST 2011



http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14553330







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