A TERATOGEN (like Thalidomide) CAUSE BIRTH DEFECTS
Beacon Pharmaceuticals, July 2001
The chemicals which are most commonly used in the latex product manufacture and which precipitate type IV allergic reactions are shown below:
Dithiocarbamates zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate
zinc diethyl dithiocarbamate
zinc dibutyl dithiocarbamate
zinc pentamethylene dithiocarbamate
Thiazoles 2-mercapto benzothiazole
zinc 2-mercapto benzothiazole
Thiurams dipentamethylene thiuram tetrasulphide
tetramethyl thiuram disulphide
Xanthates sodium isopropyl xanthate
A teratogen is any medication, chemical, infectious disease, or environmental agent that might interfere with the normal development of a foetus and result in the loss of a pregnancy , a birth defect , or a pregnancy complication . There are a variety of teratogens that are relatively common. Some examples are listed, but there are other teratogens which are not on this list.
* Medications . Examples include seizure medications (such as Dilantin, Valporic Acid, Tegretol), Accutane, thalidomide , chemotherapy, lithium.
* Environmental Agents, such as organic solvents, chemicals, lead, anaesthetic gases, organic mercury.
* Infectious Diseases. Examples include rubella , cytomegalovirus , genital herpes , toxoplasmosis , Fifth disease , chickenpox .
* Other, including diabetes , radiation, hyperthermia (high fever).
This compound is used as a fungicide, bacteriostat, pesticide, rubber vulcanization accelerator, scabicide, seed disinfectant, animal repellent, insecticide, lube oil additive and wood preservative.
SAX TOXICITY EVALUATION:
THR: Poison by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. An experimental
carcinogen, tumorigen and teratogen. Mutagenic data. Affects the
human pulmonary system. A mild allergen and irritant.
This compound is toxic by ingestion and inhalation [031,062]. It is
an irritant of the skin and mucous membranes [031,151,269,295]. It is also
an irritant of the eyes and respiratory tract [099,269]. When heated to
decomposition it emits toxic fumes of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur
oxides and nitrogen oxides [058,269,371]. It may cause lacrimation
Symptoms of exposure to this compound include reddening and swelling of
the eyes and skin, blisters, tearing, runny nose, dry throat and chest dis-
comfort . Inhalation may cause sneezing and coughing [058,346]. Other
symptoms include irritation of the skin, eyes, mucous membranes and respiratory
tract . Exposure may cause conjunctivitis, rhinitis, erythema, urticaria,
intolerance to alcohol, palpitation, rapid pulse, dizziness and hypotension
. It may also cause vasodilation of the face and neck, tachycardia,
tachypnea, cardiac arrhythmias, pallor, hypertension, convulsions, myocardial
infarction, optic neuritis, peripheral neuropathy, hypersensitivity hepatitis,
fatigue, sleepiness, headache, chromosomal aberration (rare) and damage in
the nerve cells of the cerbral cortex . Other symptoms include clinical
and subclinical liver dysfunction and asthenia, thoracic pain, epistaxis,
dermal lesions, myocardial dystrophia and enlargement of the thyroid .
It may cause gastrointestinal disorders, unpleasant taste, lowered blood
pressure, reduced potency, mild confusion, lethargy, impaired memory span,
bizarre behavior, emotional lability, ataxia, hallucinations, uncontrollable
arm movements, irritability, speech difficulty, drowsiness, loss of libido,
psychoses (rare), Parkinsonian tremor, peripheral neuritis, neuropsychiatric
effects, anorexia, weight loss, emesis, lethargy, coma, delirium, catatonia,
suppression of the tendon reflexes, hypotonia, flaccid paralysis and death
. It may also cause hyperventilation, sweating, breathlessness, air
hunger, chest pain, central nervous system depression, rash, optic neuropathy
and psychotic behavior . Allergic reactions may occur [026,051,099].
Pulmonary damage may also occur . Diarrhea and allergic eczema have
been reported . Lacrimation, photophobia and skin sensitization are
also symptoms of exposure .
Inhalation after alcohol consumption may lead to nausea, vomiting and
flushing [058,301]. It may also cause collapse [042,051]. After alcohol
ingestion, symptoms may also include gastric pain, hyperirritability, fine
tremor of the fingers and tongue, elevated blood pressure, slight fever,
moderate lymphopenia; albumin, urobilinogen and numerous casts in the urine;
liver enlargement, ulcers of the oral cavity and goiters .