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The Democratic Trickle-Down Theory of Capitalism is Actually A Dictatorship

by SPACE 2001 (Kenneth G. Dzaman) Saturday, Sep. 22, 2001 at 8:35 PM
kennspace2001@hotmail.com JUST-is as JUST-does + WITNESS SOCIETY OF SEATTLE. PO BOX 85503 SEA WA 98145-1503

The Trickle-Down Theory of Capitalism is Actually A Dictatorship of Capitalism for the "Super Rich". (Good capitalism is a "trickle up" theory for the "Super Rich".). The Trickle-Down of Patriotism, Nationalism, and Capitalism. Corporations get billions for "Bailouts", Employee's get pink slips..... USA trickle-down theory, and practice; In a capitalist stock market. A PEACEFUL WORLDWIDE HUMANITARIAN PROTEST AGAINST WAR AND U.S. NATIONALISTIC ECONOMIC AND GOVERNMENTAL WAR POLICY.

The Democratic Trickle-Down Theory of Capitalism is Actually A Dictatorship of Capitalism for the "Super Rich" Corporate-Military "Shareholders".

USA trickle-down theory, and practice; in a capitalistic stock market.


1). Corporate Executive Capitalists (the "super rich") get a very high percentage of the stock - in their companies - upon "initial" stock offering.

2). The "super rich" sell small amounts of this stock for their opulent lifestyles - to their employees and the public, - and "hold" the rest. (The "super rich" sell it in the stock market at a "good" price to the "public" - the same "arena" that made them super rich through the "initial" stock offering.).

3). The "super rich" keep 30% of their assets in cash (after and from the "initial offering" of stock), waiting to buy the stock back at a discount - from their employees and the public, when their employees can no longer afford to "hold" onto the stock. (Hence all the layoffs and the "bailing out" of the corporations; - It forces the laid off employee to sell their stock at a discount, and the public soon follows; - as payments come due on their over-extended business, and lifestyle, - of credit and debt - in a "faltering" economy. This does not affect the "super rich" lifestyle as they spend their 100 or 200 million dollars, which they can easily maintain - as "the big squeeze" is put on the employees and "other" smaller share holders. The "super rich" then "buy back" the stock at a discount - with low interest loans and government bailouts, and the money from their employees and the public; - they received from the "initial" offering.!

4). This then starts the "trickle down" cycle all over again, as "new" employee's are hired, and everyone starts making their payments again - while the employees own much less - or no stock! Options and contracts on the stock are then offered as incentives to "new" employee's.

5). When "employee's" and the "public" again own too much of a percentage in the stock market - look again for this stock market crash! - They are very predictable; it is all in the numbers in this pyramid scheme!! And the "super rich" have those #'s of stock and dollars to bail themselves out, and get "richer" in the process! As soon as the "public" own 40% to 50% of the "public" stock market, it is amazing how fast it goes down in one of those "corrections", and the stock gets "bought back" by the corporations and the
"super rich" - who manipulate the corporate capitalistic government, interest rates, and loans! They make it even easier for the public to go into debt, and harder to get out of it! While the "super rich" squeeze lemonade, out of the capitalistic system in the recession; the "public" and employees only get lemons. The "public" and the former "employees" - will have to borrow the sugar, - from their "super rich" corporate neighbor! The "owner" of the pyramid scheme-stock market, and who own the numbers of stock and dollars necessary to sustain "the middle class" - stock market dream of the "super rich"!

The inventor of the pyramid scheme:
Your favorite "super rich" capitalist!
(I wish to remain anonymous - behind a large wall with my own security force...).

Sell Your Corporate Stock for PEACE! SUFFER THROUGH PEACE - NOT WAR!
by Kenn Dzaman 3:19am Mon Sep 17 '01
JUST-is as JUST-does + WITNESS SOCIETY OF SEATTLE. PO BOX 85503 SEA WA 98145-1503 kennspace2001@hotmail.com



911 - 2001
. An EMERGENCY call asking for HELP in STOPPING U.S. World Capitalistic and Militaristic Domination.

Sell Your United States Corporate Stock for PEACE!
(And before they are worth less.)

Embargo and Sanctions AGAINST the United States for any Military WAR ACTIONS!

Sell Your United States Corporate Stock for PEACE the week of September 17, 2001!

Sell Your American Corporate Stock for Peace, attack oppressive world trading policies and practices, - without blowing up a world trade center!

World Trade practices and behaviors of the United States and its over-consumption, has created a militaristic regime of procurement for its mass's, - that is nothing more than the bullying repetition of history.

Dear "They're Not American" - Mr. President Bush,

Dear "They're Not American" - Mr. President Bush, September 21st, 2001

Are you really as afraid and naive as you sound?

You are very American President Bush, but you are not very human.
You do not impress me President Bush - and you feel rather sick to me, I hope I never meet you. I am moving away from Seattle because it is filled with American Nationalists like you.

One question Mr. President Bush - and one question only:
If those terrorists were Canadian, European, or Australian; would the United States of America declare WAR on one of those countries? Or would the "criminals" and their "co-conspirators" be arrested?

The difference between justice and terrorism is in the killing of people, like in New York City; Killing innocent people is terrorism - no matter where it is created or how much the person makes or the education they have: Killing human beings is terrorism period! It is sad you do not feel it after watching so many die in New York, you must be one proud American to still want to kill anyone.

I am not worried about terrorists from other countries anymore, I am worried about the thousands of terrorists that will be created in The US, if the United States of America - again- starts killing innocent people - or "lots of non-Americans" somewhere else. We all know what a "smart bomb" looks like now - don't we Mr. President Bush? Matter of fact - Mr. President Bush, - every person in the United States now knows what a "smart bomb" does when it explodes. It has happened in Oklahoma City, Littleton Colorado, and now New York City; and they did not even need fancy militaristic technology to do their killing!.

Please stop killing people, Mr. President Bush - and calling it "execution", "surgical killing", "infinite justice" and all those other clean sounding WAR and human killing labels you use. Please, if you are going to kill them, call it what it is; WAR is execution, terrorism, and murder - PRESIDENT BUSH - and have no doubt in your mind, body, or soul; it is what you, PRESIDENT BUSH, are creating.

With an attitude like yours - Mr. President Bush, - you will drive your caring friends to suicide, - if, - they do not run away from you fast enough; I hope you don't terrify too many with your desire to create so much human death. - You sound like one of the terrorists of death Mr. President Bush, - more than anything consciously living.

A TERRORISTS CONGRATULATIONS; You have won the death penalty! -
The Terrorist, and The Terrorist's Ego of Revenge and WAR.

We must refuse as citizens to be made into willing co-conspirators with a violent crime, otherwise, you are nothing but a terrorist.

[Capital punishment perpetuates violence]

I believe if we continue to execute human beings in WAR and other ways, we are perpetuating violence in our society and asking individual human beings - like those who work in the MILITARY system - to participate in an act that must crush the soul to its very core.

WAR and STATE Execution is Government-Sponsored Terrorism - Murder.
(Execution is defined as homicide on a death certificate, it is State sanctioned terrorism and murder. Execution and WAR begins our country's involvement in the cycle of violence that leads to terrorism being created in the individuals of our country.).

Our government is the potent, the omnipresent teacher. For good or ill, it teaches the people by its example." -Justice Brandeis

I do not support or believe in the United States Federal Government any longer. I do not support a government, or a culture, that has the power to execute "others". I do not believe that executing a human being is justice in any form, it is terrorism and murder. I do not support a government that has the power to create this cultural-world terrorism and execution of human life. When the United States people stop executing human beings and creating this terrorism, I will support the United States government; until then, I do not support the United States government and I will help change it. (I am not a martyr, terrorist, or savior; I am human.)

Human execution and WAR is a human perversion that is both cultural and individual. Any human who enjoys or desires to create the execution and death of another human being (or themselves) is a terrorist. Thank you, United States, for making my decision so easy (even though its action is so hard); - I do not support terrorism, execution, war, or murder, therefore I do not support the United States government. Executing a human being is terrorism and it is what the United States is creating in WAR. I do not support terrorism. The United States military kills people all over the world all the time. We are witnessing this killing and terrorism being created in the United States where the military machine is being created. It will be the people of the United States who dismantle this terrorism we are creating - one way or the other; Either through peaceful and conscious evolution, or through perversion, execution, and terrorism. We need to stop this terrorism of executing human beings before it kills us all. If you do not see and feel this terrorism now, you will. Please help stop terrorism from being created by feeling it now, before it takes someone else "by surprise"; it could be someone you know. Please help stop humans from killing humans, it is terrifying, and it creates terrorists.

Kenneth G. Dzaman
JUST-is as JUST-does + WITNESS SOCIETY OF SEATTLE. PO BOX 85503 SEA WA 98145-1503 kennspace2001@hotmail.com

These feeling are not "new":

Execution is Government-Sponsored Terrorism - Murder.
To the Editor: Jun 22, 2001 --
http://www.seattlepress.com/9207-1.article Seattle Press

Death (execution?) will kill you, Mr, President; it will kill US all.

Surgical Killing; Part #1:

Surgical Killing; Part #2:

Surgical Killing; Part #3:
(continuation and completion)-

"...What crashed against the Twin Towers was History. The same History, which reduced to ruins powerful empires such as Egypt and Rome...No counterattack from the U.S. can reverse such an impact. The final countdown for the end of the last world superpower is in progress already...it's an irreversible process"
by Latuff

"Those Lives are more Human than ours: Thoughts on the Debris of the New World Order"

In 1994 an ethnic conflict between the Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda, Africa killed around 500 thousand people, mostly by the blows of machetes. This fact was shown on TVs around the world, but we were not so touched by it.

Bombed in 1991 by USA, Iraq is suffering from economic sanctions imposed by the United Nations. The result of this embargo is deprivation in the country of provisions, including medicines, resulting in the deaths of an unknown number of human beings. Children mainly. Again, we seem not to be so moved.

Recently, Palestinian children and teenagers armed with stones and slings have been shot to death by Israeli troops in the Occupied Territories of West Bank and Gaza. Images come daily in the news bulletins, but not enough to move us.

However, scenes of the attack on the World Trade Center succeeded in producing tears around the world. How do we understand this strange sensibility? Sure! The Rwandans, Iraqis, Palestinians...they are not like us, like common citizens from the West and America!!! Their lives are less human than ours. We spent a lot of time eating American fast food, listening to American rock 'n roll, wearing American jeans and watching their Rambos and Titanics, that we ended up believing we are just like our "Brothers from North". We hold on to this idea to forget our own status of deprivation.

Who cares if rained "made in USA" bombs in Japan, Korea, Vietnam and Serbia? It's about THEM and not US. I speak english and I know who Michael Jackson is. I've got a pair of Nike tennis shoes and have just pierced my nose, just like I saw in a movie. I feel myself almost an American. By the way, who said I am a Latin American? I am an A-m-e-r-i-c-a-n!!! That's the same concept that makes US interventions seem fair in foreign countries on behalf of freedom and democracy. It's for our own welfare. Uncle Sam is defending ourselves from THEM.

Our stupid complicity has agreed to American hegemony for all this time. But change comes fast, aboard passenger planes. Not even Francis Fukuyama could have expected this... What crashed against the Twin Towers was History. The same History, which reduced to ruins powerful empires such as Egypt and Rome. No counterattack from the U.S. can reverse such an impact. The final countdown for the end of the last world superpower is in progress already. It's impossible to foresee when it will finish, but undoubtedly it's an irreversible process.

The day 11 of September can be understood as a kind of "Tet Offensive" for the American nation. It didn't defeat it, but reported the nearness

by Latuff

September 19, 2001
GOAL: 1,000,000
DEADLINE: Ongoing ...


We the undersigned, endorse the following petition:
Target: George W. Bush President of the United States The US Government

URGENT! In the aftermath of the ruthless attack on the World Trade Center and Pentagon, we implore the leaders of the United States to ensure that justice be served by protecting the innocent citizens of all nations.

We demand that the President maintain the civil liberties of all U.S. residents, protect the human rights of all people at home and abroad, and guarantee that this attempted attack on the principles and freedoms of the United States will not succeed.

We plead for a thorough investigation of the terrorist events before any retaliation.

We call for PEACE and JUSTICE, not revenge.

In Solidarity,
The Undersigned


100 years of infinite justice
by joeH 12:17am Fri Sep 21 '01

100 years of American history

Why would anyone be angry at the US?

SOUTH DAKOTA 1890 (-?) Troops 300 Lakota Indians massacred at Wounded Knee.

ARGENTINA 1890 Troops Buenos Aires interests protected.

CHILE 1891 Troops Marines clash with nationalist rebels.
HAITI 1891 Troops Black revolt on Navassa defeated.

IDAHO 1892 Troops Army suppresses silver miners' strike .

HAWAII 1893 (-?) Naval, troops Independent kingdom overthrown, annexed.
CHICAGO 1894 Troops Breaking of rail strike, 34 killed.

NICARAGUA 1894 Troops Month-long occupation of Bluefields.

CHINA 1894-95 Naval, troops Marines land in Sino-Japanese War

KOREA 1894-96 Troops Marines kept in Seoul during war.
PANAMA 1895 Troops, naval Marines land in Colombian province.

NICARAGUA 1896 Troops Marines land in port of Corinto.

CHINA 1898-1900 Troops Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies.
PHILIPPINES 1898-1910 (-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, killed 600,000 Filipinos

CUBA 1898-1902 (-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still hold Navy base.

PUERTO RICO 1898 (-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, occupation continues.
GUAM 1898 (-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still use as base.

MINNESOTA 1898 (-?) Troops Army battles Chippewa at Leech Lake.

NICARAGUA 1898 Troops Marines land at port of San Juan del Sur .

SAMOA 1899 (-?) Troops Battle over succession to throne.

NICARAGUA 1899 Troops Marines land at port of Bluefields .

IDAHO 1899-1901 Troops Army occupies Coeur d'Alene mining region.

OKLAHOMA 1901 Troops Army battles Creek Indian revolt.

PANAMA 1901-03 (-?) Naval, troops Broke off from Colombia, annexed Canal Zone.

HONDURAS 1903 Troops Marines intervene in revolution.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1903-04 Troops U.S. interests protected in Revolution.

KOREA 1904-05 Troops Marines land in Russo-Japanese War.

CUBA 1906-09 Troops Marines land in democratic election.

NICARAGUA 1907 Troops "Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set up.
HONDURAS 1907 Troops Marines land during war with Nicaragua

PANAMA 1908 Troops Marines intervene in election contest.

NICARAGUA 1910 Troops Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto.
HONDURAS 1911 Troops U.S. interests protected in civil war.

CHINA 1911-41 Naval, troops Continuous occupation with flare-ups .

CUBA 1912 Troops U.S. interests protected in civil war.

PANAMA 1912 Troops Marines land during heated election.
HONDURAS 1912 Troops Marines protect U.S. economic interests.

NICARAGUA 1912-33 Troops, bombing 10-year occupation, fought guerillas
MEXICO 1913 Naval Americans evacuated during revolution.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1914 Naval Fight with rebels over Santo Domingo.

COLORADO 1914 Troops Breaking of miners' strike by Army.

MEXICO 1914-18 Naval, troops Series of interventions against nationalists.

HAITI 1914-34 Troops, bombing 19-year occupation after revolts.
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1916-24 Troops 8-year Marine occupation.

CUBA 1917-33 Troops Military occupation, economic protectorate.

WORLD WAR I 1917-18 naval, troops Ships sunk, fought Germany for 1 1/2 years.

RUSSIA 1918-22 Naval, troops Five landings to fight Bolsheviks

PANAMA 1918-20 Troops "Police duty" during unrest after elections.
HONDURAS 1919 Troops Marines land during election campaign.

GUATEMALA 1920 Troops 2-week intervention against unionists.

WEST VIRGINIA 1920-21 Troops, bombing Army intervenes against mineworkers.

TURKEY 1922 Troops Fought nationalists in Smyrna.

CHINA 1922-27 Naval, troops Deployment during nationalist revolt.

HONDURAS 1924-25 Troops Landed twice during election strife.

PANAMA 1925 Troops Marines suppress general strike.

CHINA 1928-34 Troops Marines stationed throughout the country.

EL SALVADOR 1932 Naval Warships send during Marti revolt.

WASHINGTON DC 1932 Troops Army stops WWI vet bonus protest .

WORLD WAR II 1941-45 Naval, troops, bombing, nuclear Hawaii bombed, fought Japan, Italy and
Germay for 3 years; first nuclear war.

DETROIT 1943 Troops Army put down Black rebellion.

IRAN 1946 Nuclear threat Soviet troops told to leave north.

YUGOSLAVIA 1946 Nuclear threat Response to shooting-down of U.S. plane.

URUGUAY 1947 Nuclear threat Bombers deployed as show of strength.

GREECE 1947-49 Command operation U.S. directs extreme-right in civil war.

GERMANY 1948 Nuclear Threat Atomic-capable bombers guard Berlin Airlift.

PHILIPPINES 1948-54 Command operation CIA directs war against Huk Rebellion.
PUERTO RICO 1950 Command operation Independence rebellion crushed in Ponce .

KOREA 1951-53 (-?) Troops, naval, bombing , nuclear threats U.S./So. Korea fights China/No.
Korea to stalemate; A-bomb threat in 1950, and against China in 1953. Still have bases.

IRAN 1953 Command Operation CIA overthrows democracy, installs Shah.
VIETNAM 1954 Nuclear threat French offered bombs to use against seige.

GUATEMALA 1954 Command operation, bombing, nuclear threat CIA directs exile invasion after
new gov't nationalized U.S. company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua.

EGYPT 1956 Nuclear threat Soviets told to keep out of Suez crisis.

LEBANON l958 Troops, naval Marine occupation against rebels

IRAQ 1958 Nuclear threat Iraq warned against invading Kuwait.

CHINA l958 Nuclear threat China told not to move on Taiwan isles.

PANAMA 1958 Troops Flag protests erupt into confrontation .

VIETNAM l960-75 Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats Fought South Vietnam revolt & North
Vietnam; one million killed in longest U.S. war; atomic bomb threats in l968 and l969.

LAOS 1961 Command operation Military buildup during guerrilla war.

CUBA l961 Command operation CIA-directed exile invasion fails.

GERMANY l961 Nuclear threat Alert during Berlin Wall crisis.

CUBA l962 Nuclear threat, naval Blockade during missile crisis; near-war with Soviet Union.

PANAMA l964 Troops Panamanians shot for urging canal's return.

INDONESIA l965 Command operation Million killed in CIA-assisted army coup.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1965-66 Troops, bombing Marines land during election campaign.

GUATEMALA l966-67 Command operation Green Berets intervene against rebels.

DETROIT l967 Troops Army battles Blacks, 43 killed.

UNITED STATES l968 Troops After King is shot; over 21,000 soldiers in cities.

CAMBODIA l969-75 Bombing, troops, naval Up to 2 million killed in decade of bombing, starvation,
and political chaos.

OMAN l970 Command operation U.S. directs Iranian marine invasion.

LAOS l971-73 Command operation, bombing U.S. directs South Vietnamese invasion;
"carpet-bombs" countryside.

SOUTH DAKOTA l973 Command operation Army directs Wounded Knee siege of Lakotas.

MIDEAST 1973 Nuclear threat World-wide alert during Mideast War.

CHILE 1973 Command operation CIA-backed coup ousts elected marxist president.

CAMBODIA l975 Troops, bombing Gas captured ship, 28 die in copter crash.

ANGOLA l976-92 Command operation CIA assists South African-backed rebels .

IRAN l980 Troops, nuclear threat, aborted bombing Raid to rescue Embassy hostages; 8 troops die
in copter-plane crash. Soviets warned not to get involved in revolution.

LIBYA l981 Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down in maneuvers.
EL SALVADOR l981-92 Command operation, troops Advisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war,
soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash.

NICARAGUA l981-90 Command operation, naval CIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor
mines against revolution.

HONDURAS l982-90 Troops Maneuvers help build bases near borders.

LEBANON l982-84 Naval, bombing, troops Marines expel PLO and back Phalangists, Navy bombs
and shells Muslim positions.

GRENADA l983-84 Troops, bombing Invasion four years after revolution.

LIBYA l986 Bombing, naval Air strikes to topple nationalist gov't.

BOLIVIA 1987 Troops Army assists raids on cocaine region.

IRAN l987-88 Naval, bombing US intervenes on side of Iraq in war.

LIBYA 1989 Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down.

VIRGIN ISLANDS 1989 Troops St. Croix Black unrest after storm.

PHILIPPINES 1989 Jets Air cover provided for government against coup.

PANAMA 1989 (-?) Troops, bombing Nationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders
arrested, 2000+ killed.

LIBERIA 1990 Troops Foreigners evacuated during civil war.

SAUDI ARABIA 1990-91 Troops, jets Iraq countered after invading Kuwait. 540,000 troops also
stationed in Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel.

KUWAIT 1991 Naval, bombing, troops Kuwait royal family returned to throne.

IRAQ 1990-? Bombing, troops, naval Blockade of Iraqi and Jordanian ports, air strikes; 200,000+
killed in invasion of Iraq and Kuwait; no-fly zone over Kurdish north, Shiite south, large-scale
destruction of Iraqi military.

LOS ANGELES 1992 Troops Army, Marines deployed against anti-police uprising.

SOMALIA 1992-94 Troops, naval, bombing U.S.-led United Nations occupation during civil war;
raids against one Mogadishu faction.

YUGOSLAVIA 1992-94 Naval NATO blockade of Serbia and Montenegro.

BOSNIA 1993-? Jets, bombing No-fly zone patrolled in civil war; downed jets, bombed Serbs.

HAITI 1994-? Troops, naval Blockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide
to office three years after coup.

ZAIRE (CONGO) 1996-97 Troops Marines at Rwandan Hutu refugee camps, in area where Congo
revolution begins. LIBERIA 1997 Troops Soldiers under fire during evacuation of Foreigners

ALBANIA 1997 Troops Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.

SUDAN 1998 Bombing

AFGHANISTAN 1998 Bombing

IRAQ 1998 Bombing

2001.......INFINITE JUSTICE......

A Short List of US Govt Actions in the Middle East
by Dan Raphael 9:32pm Thu Sep 20 '01

This is a short list of US government actions in the Middle East; it is not exhaustive, by any means.

The list below presents specific incidents of U.S. policy. It minimizes the grievances against the U.S. because it excludes long-standing policies, such as U.S. backing for authoritarian regimes (arming Saudi Arabia, training the secret police in Iran under the Shah, providing arms and aid to Turkey as it attacked Kurdish villages, etc.). The list also excludes actions of Israel in which the U.S. is indirectly implicated because Israel has been the leading or second-ranking recipient of U.S. aid for many years and has received U.S. weapons and benefitted from U.S. vetos in the Security Council.

1949: CIA backs military coup deposing elected government of Syria.

1953: CIA helps overthrow the democratically-elected Mossadeq government in Iran (which had nationalized the British oil company) leading to a quarter-century of dictatorial rule by the Shah, Mohammed Reza Pahlevi.

1956: U.S. cuts off promised funding for Aswan Dam in Egypt after Egypt receives Eastern bloc arms.

1956: Israel, Britain, and France invade Egypt. U.S. does not support invasion, but the involvement of NATO allies severely diminishes Washington's reputation in the region.

1958: U.S. troops land in Lebanon to preserve "stability."

1960s (early): U.S. unsuccessfully attempts assassination of Iraqi leader, Abdul Karim Qassim.

1963: U.S. reported to give Iraqi Ba'ath party (soon to be headed by Saddam Hussein) names of communists to murder, which they do with vigor.

1967-: U.S. blocks any effort in the Security Council to enforce SC Resolution 244, calling for Israeli withdrawal from territories occupied in the 1967 war.

1970: Civil war between Jordan and PLO. Israel and U.S. prepare to intervene on side of Jordan if Syria backs PLO.

1972: U.S. blocks Sadat's efforts to reach a peace agreement with Egypt.

1973: U.S. military aid enables Israel to turn the tide in war with Syria and Egypt.

1973-75: U.S. supports Kurdish rebels in Iraq. When Iran reaches an agreement with Iraq in 1975 and seals the border, Iraq slaughters Kurds and U.S. denies them refuge. Kissinger secretly explains that "covert action should not be confused with missionary work."

1978-79: Iranians begin demonstrations against the Shah. U.S. tells Shah it supports him "without reservation" and urges him to act forcefully. Until the last minute, U.S. tries to organize military coup to save the Shah, but to no avail.

1979-88: U.S. begins covert aid to Mujahideen in Afghanistan six months before Soviet invasion. Over the next decade U.S. provides more than billion in arms and aid.

1980-88: Iran-Iraq war. When Iraq invades Iran, the U.S. opposes any Security Council action to condemn the invasion. U.S. removes Iraq from its list of nations supporting terrorism and allows U.S. arms to be transferred to Iraq. U.S. lets Israel provide arms to Iran and in 1985 U.S. provides arms directly (though secretly) to Iran. U.S. provides intelligence information to Iraq. Iraq uses chemical weapons in 1984; U.S. restores diplomatic relations with Iraq. 1987 U.S. sends its navy into the Persian Gulf, taking Iraq's side; an aggressive U.S. ship shoots down an Iranian civilian airliner, killing 290.

1981, 1986: U.S. holds military maneuvers off the coast of Libya with the clear purpose of provoking Qaddafi. In 1981, a Libyan plane fires a missile and two Libyan planes were subsequently shot down. In 1986, Libya fires missiles that land far from any target and U.S. attacks Libyan patrol boats, killing 72, and shore installations. When a bomb goes off in a Berlin nightclub, killing two, the U.S. charges that Qaddafi was behind it (possibly true) and conducts major bombing raids in Libya, killing dozens of civilians, including Qaddafi's adopted daughter.

1982: U.S. gives "green light" to Israeli invasion of Lebanon, where more than 10,000 civilians were killed. U.S. chooses not to invoke its laws prohibiting Israeli use of U.S. weapons except in self-defense.

1983: U.S. troops sent to Lebanon as part of a multinational peacekeeping force; intervene on one side of a civil war. Withdraw after suicide bombing of marine barracks.

1984: U.S.-backed rebels in Afghanistan fire on civilian airliner.

1988: Saddam Hussein kills many thousands of his own Kurdish population and uses chemical weapons against them. The U.S. increases its economic ties to Iraq.

1990-91: U.S. rejects diplomatic settlement of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait (for example, rebuffing any attempt to link the two regional occupations, of Kuwait and Palestine). U.S. leads international coalition in war against Iraq. Civilian infrastructure targeted. To promote "stability" U.S. refuses to aid uprisings by Shi'ites in the south and Kurds in the north, denying the rebels access to captured Iraqi weapons and refusing to prohibit Iraqi helicopter flights.

1991-: Devastating economic sanctions are imposed on Iraq. U.S. and Britain block all attempts to lift them. Hundreds of thousands die. Though Security Council stated sanctions were to be lifted once Hussein's programs to develop weapons of mass destruction were ended, Washington makes it known that the sanctions would remain as long as Saddam remains in power. Sanctions strengthen Saddam's position.

1993-: U.S. launches missile attack on Iraq, claiming self-defense against an alleged assassination attempt on former president Bush two months earlier.

1998: U.S. and U.K. bomb Iraq over weapons inspections, even though Security Council is just then meeting to discuss the matter.

1998: U.S. destroys factory producing half of Sudan's pharmaceutical supply, claiming retaliation for attacks on U.S. embassies in Tanzania and Kenya and that factory was involved in chemical warfare. U.S. later acknowledges there is no evidence for the chemical warfare charge.


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