fix articles 3777, wealth
Why capitalism compels renunciation and we could work less (tags)
How much human and natural resources are squandered on taxation, trade and advertising, how much on labor administration, justice, police, prisons, armaments, military? How many people work overtime without end, suffer heart attacks and burnout, wear themselves out in the brutal competition?
How should our economy grow? (tags)
If, on the other hand, the inequality distribution is reduced via increased spending on education, positive growth effects may result. In addition, too much inequality can destabilize the political system through social unrest, creating great uncertainty for investors, for example with regard to the protection of property rights.
Climate crisis and social transformation in times of corona (tags)
Companies go bankrupt, workers are laid off, and because the sources of income dry up, millions of people can no longer even buy the most basic necessities... What counts is whether the things produced can be sold on the market and make a profit.
When Wealth Destroys Wealth: Inverse Capitalism and its Limits (tags)
Ever-increasing real estate prices was an illusion. The boom that the US stock markets have experienced in recent years deserves the name fracking boom. Fictitious capital put the US economy back on the growth track.
Climate crisis and social transformation in the age of Corona (tags)
Material wealth in the form of useful things and utilities is only a means subordinated to the objective of capital accumulation and is sacrificed when that objective can no longer be achieved… Without the state, capitalist society would fly apart immediately.
Extremely Growing Inequality Destroys Democracy (tags)
When one percent have half of the wealth, mistrust and cynicism drown out public spirit and trust between the generations. A fair tax system means ending tax havens, micro-second trading, stock buybacks and insider trading.
"We do not live in capitalism" (tags)
After the transition to Atlantic turbo-capitgalism, little can be recognized from the earlier times of the initiatives of the social market economy. In this situation, the counter-factual and fact-immune creed of all conservatives is enmeshed in a deep unconsciousness about the world.
Market Economy: The Superrich Endanger Democracy (tags)
It is easy to influence politics with a lot of money, and civil society is often just a nuisance. In the US, this problem is everywhere, but Europe is catching up.
Bernie Sanders, Elizabeth Warren and the Wealth Tax (tags)
Warren's proposal earmarks a 2% tax on wealth between $50 million and a billion dollars and a 3% tax on wealth over a billion. Between 1930 and 1980, top incomes were taxed at 81% and top inherited wealth at 74%. Obviously, this did not destroy American capitalism.
Females Do 70% Work, Get 10% Wages, And 1% Wealth (tags)
Women worldwide do 70% of the work, get 10% of the wages and only have 1% of the wealth.
The Financial Market Casino Controls Politics (tags)
Financial markets seem to be the measure of all things. Corporations are subsidized with trillions. In their "competition," small and medium-size businesses are the fools. A complex subsidy jungle exists in nearly all states, a "socialism for the rich" or "new feudalism."
The Crisis of Democracy (tags)
Decisions affecting social development are in the hands of private investors and state policy depends on their actions. The increasingly unequal income and wealth distribution was the result of a strategic government policy that reacted to a capitalist crisis.
Women Earn 10% Salary & 1% Wealth Worldwide (tags)
From The Invisible Woman by Dale Spender
Public Good or Private Wealth (tags)
The deep and growing chasm between the rich and the poor is not an accident. This gulf is the result of political decisions. Many rich countries have lowered or abolished property taxes. Governments reduce spending on education and health care.
Ten Years After the Financial Crash (tags)
US economic statistics are dubious since financial markets are based on financial products and money out of nothing. Tax havens, micro-second betting, stock buybacks and corruption through lobbying are market-distorting and cause revenue shortfalls.
The Attack of Corporations and the Rich on the Rest of Society (tags)
Inconceivable sums were given out without hesitation when the banks were bailed out from bankruptcy. The rich triumph and despise others as losers. Corporations and the rich must desist from their selfishness and accept their responsibility for society again.
Post-capitalist Perspectives (tags)
Capitalism is winning to death. The exit from the overheated machine of capitalism represents an enormous challenge. We cannot avoid the question about common property in the search for alternatives.Can greater social equality be achieved without changing property relations?
Capitalism and Worldwide Inequality (tags)
Thomas Piketty's motto "Inequality is always a problem when it is excessive" introduces the new World Inequality Report. Inequalities of income and wealth swell globally and in individual regions and nations.
Neoliberalism or New Freedom for Corporations (tags)
"The interests of merchants always differ from public interests. As a rule, they are interested in deceiving and misusing the general public" (Adam Smith). Keynes established that the market alone cannot ensure the prosperity of everyone.
The Market is a Universal Totalitarian Religion (tags)
The market accepts and rejects like a Calvinist God. The market only promises itself. Its highest good is the economic boom. The market theocracy makes this side into something otherworldly. The cult of money and the commodity eclipses all its predecessors.
The Struggle against Aggressive Tax Avoidance (tags)
Experts estimate a fifth of world wealth is hidden from the tax authorities of states and considerable parts of international corporate profits are not taxed. Google and Amazon parked billions in shadow financial centers. Tax avoidance makes a functioning state impossible
Unemployment and New Ways (tags)
The rise of unemployment worldwide has reached unparalleled dimensions. In 1999, 700 million were affected. The neoliberal economic theory promotes the prosperity of the rich, not society as a whole. Profit maximization is often the only goal. Reducing working hours is vital.
Sharing, not Killing (tags)
Refused sharing and rediscovery of sharing are signs of this time. "This economy kills." So Pope Francis judges socio-economic conditions. Taxing the rich is vital. With additional revenue, workers would not feel threatened by immigrants
The Driving Force of Global Inequality (tags)
Behind closed doors, a powerful industry has developed worldwide since the 1980s: tax avoidance. Taxes that are avoided must be compensated by higher taxation of households with lower incomes.
"The Public Trust Doctrine," Wealth Inequality, and Iraq (tags)
"The Public Trust Doctrine" is a fundamental precursor to modern environmental law. The doctrine has often been characterized as an attribute of sovereignty that carries constitutional force.
Economic Stagnation and its Mastery (tags)
Corporate profits explode while investments stagnate.Social housing declines with privatization. According to neoliberal theory, higher profits lead to grater investments and more jobs. In truth, higher profits lead to more use of tax havens and companies buying back their stock.
Poverty Returns with Misguided Policy (tags)
The state should represent the public interest and yet private or special interests are in the driver's seat. Trump's proposed 2018 budget is a sledgehammer with cuts to Meals-on-Wheels, school lunches, WIC food assistance, National Institute for Health, EPA, PBS and Legal Services
Unemployment and Inequality (tags)
"The past will devour the future" if there is no radical change of direction in economic development. That is Thomas Piketty's prediction. Piketty sees the solution in a global capital tax or wealth tax.
Ethics and the Profit System: Global Change of Values Necessary (tags)
Profit-making is not profit-maximizing. From the magic word profit-mongering is derived the absurd unequal distribution of wealth, cheating of consumers, the exploitation of workers and ultimately the abolition of democracy. An invisible hand makes business profit into common good
The Unending Story of the Achievers (tags)
All personal and corporate success depended on state investments in roads, schools, hospitals, community centers, airwaves, food safety and water quality. The achievers' myth ignores this, Austrian researcher Bruno Rossmann explains.
Growing Inequality Harms the Political Economy (tags)
Neoliberalism and finance market capitalism encourage creating money out of thin air, exploding inequality, precarious work and environmental destruction. Wages are not only a cost factor but an important demand factor leading to either investments or social blight.
Five myths about tax havens (tags)
When tax havens assist kleptocratic elites in hiding their cash with impunity, they don’t guard against corruption and despotism — they help perpetuate them. Tax havens provide an escape route from laws that is available only to a rich minority that can afford to use it...
Oxfam Study: Six Reasons to be Outraged (tags)
Whether inequality harms or benefits was disputed for a long while. It could motivate individuals to more effort and stimulate growth, one side believed. It takes the chances for education and development from those who are poorer, the other said... Money buys power.
Social Inequality Today (tags)
The neoliberal rollback has created growing instabilities. An advancing process of de-democratization and social re-feudalization is connected with the rise of the new "super-rich." Piketty warned of the growing inequality between rich and poor.
Tax Flight, Tax Avoidance and the Contribution of the Rich to Society (tags)
Multinational businesses cause the greatest losses through tax flight and tax avoidance. Between $21 and $32 trillion are invested in tax havens. Tax flight is a problem for democracy. Without tax revenues, politics renounces on creative possibilities.
Jeremy Corbyn's Economic Vision (tags)
San Jose affordable housing law headed to U.S. Supreme Court (tags)
Wealth is really socially produced. The state takes enormous risks and makes massive investments in schools, hospitals, roads, food safety and environmental care to make private wealth possible. Tax justice, closing tax havens and public investment are vital.
High Stakes Game of Chicken in Greece (tags)
Obama Wants Regime Change in Ecuador (tags)
Thousands in Britain Rally Against Austerity (tags)
Wealth is not a Private Affair (tags)
The US faces a revenue- and a war-spending crisis. The top tax rate was over 70% from 1938 to 1982; corporations put trillions in tax havens. Alternative economics emphasize profit maximizing is not profit making. In financial capitalism,Profits explode, not investments.
UK Elections: Business As Usual Triumphs (tags)
Obama's Demagoguery in Selma (tags)
Rebirth of the One-Thousandth Society (tags)
The richest thousandth (0.1%) could increase their share in the total wealth very intensely since the 1980s. Their share is as much as the bottom 90%..While the millionaires increased their wealth enormously, the mass of the population is exposed to the continuing economic crisis.
Thomas Piketty and the Growing Inequality in Capitalism (tags)
"When capital profit is permanently higher than the growth rate for production and income which was the case up to the 19th century, capitalism automatically produces unacceptable and arbitrary inequalities that radically put in question the achievement principle..."
Christmas in America (tags)
Piketty's Big Data (tags)
The empirical-historical analysis of the top incomes and their wealth are in the center with Thomas Piketty's "Capital" (2014). The share of the top 10% was never below 60% from 1917 to 2012. A wealth tax is vital to reverse the exploding inequality.
New thoughts on capital in the twenty-first century, 21 min (tags)
Thomas Piketty is the author of the 2014 bestseller "Capital in the 21st Century."
TheInheritance of Inequality and Rethinking Growth (tags)
The economy exists for people, not vice versa. Economics should be pluralist, not a monolith. The economy should be embedded in society; society should not be embedded in the economy. Thomas Piketty and alternative economics emphasize inequality and mass unemployment.
Obama's Economy (tags)
Argentina's Christina Fernandez de Kirshner's UN Address (tags)
Why a Global Wealth Tax Reduces Inequality (tags)
The distribution of income and assets is one of the most controversial themes today. History teaches us that economic forces press in different directions - either to more equality or away from equality. Which will prevail depends on what political decisions we make.
Wealth as a Problem (tags)
The wealth of others has become more a problem and less an incentive. Capital is blind, Thomas Piketty says. Capital grows faster than the economy. Differences in wealth are inherent in capitalism but do not represent a natural law. A society can accept them or act against them.
The Middle Class Continues Shriveling (tags)
A century ago people said a progressive income tax would never happen. Today it is reality. The top tax rate in the US between 1930 and 1982 was 82 %. That was a very interesting experiment because very high incomes were covered.
Capital in the 21st Century: Thomas Piketty (tags)
"There is no escaping the fact, however, that social science research on the distribution of wealth was for a long time based on a relatively limited set of firmly established facts together with a wide variety of purely theoretical speculations."
American Oligarchs: Thieving Koch Brothers (tags)
sometimes secretly, sometimes with public ads and contributions, the Koch brothers are suborning democrac
Rich Congress, Poor America (tags)
John Dingler's "Ten Prosecuted Whistleblowers (tags)
Work inspired by what I learned at Occupy Riverside and at the 28ers
Obama's Rogue Agenda (tags)
Former Fed Official Apologizes (tags)
The Super Rich Reinvent U.S. Capitalism (tags)
As U.S. corporate profits soar to record highs, food stamps for the neediest were quietly cut. The politicians who are demanding endless cuts to social programs — Democrats and Republicans alike — insist that the U.S. is broke, all the while conveniently ignoring the mountains of tax-free wealth piling up in the pockets of the super rich.
Does the Richness of the Few Benefit Us All? (tags)
Zygmunt Bauman, born in 1925, is a Polish sociologist. Since 1971, he has resided in England after being driven out of Poland by an anti-semitic campaign, engineered by the Communist government he had supported.
America's Economic Dark Side (tags)
The World War against the Poor (tags)
More and more money capital concentrates in the hands of the rich which they let `work for itself.' Every day $1.5 trillion circulates around the globe and changes hands. Only two to three percent of that is needed to handle the business with goods and services. The rest is speculative excess.
Geekout's Links: Oct-16-2013 (tags)
The government is shut down, but not in the way the real anarchists want. Against this backdrop of partisan conflict, the world is changing in big ways.
Yellen's Fed Assures Business As Usual (tags)
Free to be Hungry by Paul Krugman (tags)
Paul Krugman is a winner of a Nobel Prize for Economics.
Filipino workers challenge to Aquino (tags)
Three years ago, President Aquino promised to substantially reduce poverty, create quality and secure jobs, and end the reign of impunity, among others. He promised “inclusive growth”. Workers have had enough of these broken promises.
Obama's Way: Waging Financial War on Humanity (tags)
Defending IMF Financial Terrorism (tags)
Playing the Venezuelan Anti-Semitism Card (tags)
America's Retirement Crisis (tags)
Philippine Gov’t lacks political will to go after the Marcoses (tags)
One can understand Andres Bautista’s deep frustration in wanting to abolish the Presidential Commission on Good Government, which he has headed since October 2010, although — or because — it has failed to accomplish its two-pronged mandate, 27 years after President Cory Aquino created the PCGG through Executive Order No. 1.
Chavismo Lives! (tags)
Social Inequality in America (tags)
Barry Commoner (1917-2012) (tags)
The economic theory of socialism does not demand an unlimited growth. The capitalist agrarian economy and industry wear out the two exclusive sources of wealth: the earth and workers. Capitalist accumulation and the finite earth are in contradiction.
Institutionalized Inequality in America (tags)
Rage Against Austerity (tags)
Neoliberalism was the Godfather of the Financial Industry (tags)
Keynesianism was replaced by neoliberalism that guided the fallow investment capital into speculation.The development of social systems and the rise of real wages contributed to social peace and stabilizing the economic upswing by strengthening mass consumption.
Romney/Ryanism in Tampa (tags)
Trillions Stashed in Tax Havens (tags)
Obama's War on Humanity (tags)
Inequalities, Taxes, and More Inequalities (tags)
Thanks to Occupy, most working people are well aware of the growing inequalities in wealth. But for those who lack the specifics, former Secretary of Labor Robert Reich provides a useful overview: “…the rich have been getting a larger and larger portion of total income. From 9 percent in 1980, the top 1 percent’s take increased to 23.5 percent by 2007. CEOs who in the 1970s took home 40 times the compensation of average workers now rake in 350 times.” (“Confessions of a Class Warrior,” August 22, 2010).
Solo geniuses who scorn the society that provides the shoulders they sit on (tags)
Without educational institutions, a court system to enforce their interests, police and military to suppress dissent at home and abroad, and “free trade” agreements that promote corporate interests above human rights, billionaires would not be able to become billionaires.
Money, Power, and Politics (tags)
There has been much talk recently about the impact of money on politics, especially in the wake of the Citizens United ruling that has ratcheted up the role of corporate money in political campaigns. Organized labor was quick to blame this ruling for its defeat in Wisconsin. And many have assumed that the relation of money to politics is like a law of nature: the more money one has, the more political power one can wield.
BTL:Federal Reserve Report Reveals Americans’ Dramatic Loss of Wealth Resulting from Finan (tags)
Interview with William K. Black, associate professor of economics and law at the University of Missouri, Kansas City, Mo., conducted by Scott Harris
Bankers, Hear the Signals! (tags)
The people may freely elect their governors. But the game ends whenever they want to force a redistribution of social wealth-even if the economic system only functions with redistribution. Democracy is social action, not a gift or a state (of rest).
The Great Devaluation (tags)
Democracy, risk and liability are turned upside down when trillions bailout the banks and workers, pensioners and unemployed must pay the bill. We live from those who say No to corruption, to the state reduced to a trough or errand boy for the banks (Bill Moyers).
Economic Dictatorship (tags)
In the crisis, there was a paradigm based on the belief in unlimited economic growth on a planet with infinite resources. This paradigm identifies happiness with wealth, well-being with accumulation of material goods and progress with consumerism.
America's Great Divide Between Rich and Poor (tags)
Occupation, Liberation, and Overcoming Contradictions Among the 99% (tags)
Which way forward for the Occupy movement and ideas on how to get there by embracing decolonization.
OWS: Too Big to Fail (tags)
A Warning To The Economic And Political Elites: Listen Now (tags)
.... this is the beginning of an American revolt. Before considering occupation, we tried other avenues: elections, lobbying, petitioning, email campaigns, telephone campaigns, marches, rallies -- but they were ineffective..... We know that decades of the expansion of corporate power will not be undone with one occupation. Plans are being made by some of us to move "Beyond Occupation" to the next steps of building a movement that represents all Americans.....
Big Banksters on Wall St. Finance Military-Industrial Complex (tags)
Big corporate banks on Wall St. not only benefitted from the "too big to fail" bailouts handed to them by BOTH Bush AND Obama (how's that for change?), these banks also benefit from the multiple wars of imperial expansion the U.S. has waged in the recent decades.
Putin Bashing (tags)
Occupation Date Set for October 1 (tags)
This is an excerpt from the linked article at LA Activist.
Israel: Rogue State Land of Inequality (tags)
Debt Ceiling Roulette (tags)
Class War Without Mercy (tags)
Vast wealth for those at the top, unemployment and poverty for the rest of society
Video: Obama and the "Gang of Six" (tags)
"Gang of Six" Plan is all about cuts not increased taxes. Obama represents Wall Street faction of Democratic Party.
Explaining the Wealth Gap to "Poets" (tags)
Humans naturally see the world logarithmically, according to a Radiolab episode, Numbers. By addressing this issue, we can ease the understanding of the wealth gap.
Working America's Dismal State (tags)
Georgia Bible Belt artists critique class disparity: FREE MONEY (tags)
Team of middle Georgia artists invite public to agree to terms of contract, hand out enhanced dollar bills for redistribution of wealth.
Does Money Buy Happiness? (tags)
A new article in Science Daily says money does not by happiness.
The Attack of Corporations and the Rich on the Rest of Society (tags)
In the last decades, wealth has concentrated in a few hands. The increasing inequality does not offend us; this inequality is the result of an active policy. The rich prevail; they are subsidized and relieved from contributions to the social infrastructure while social benefits are cut.
Why Inequality Matters (tags)
The U.S. social and economic landscape is rapidly changing. Inequalities in wealth, which began an upward ascent back in the 1980s, accelerated in the 1990s. Now they are flying off the charts, thanks first to the tax cuts ushered in by Bush II and second to Obama’s recent continuation of those tax cuts, plus more, which have the effect of taking from the working class and poor in order to give to the rich.
The Fix Is In: Expect Democrats to Buckle (tags)
Democrats will cave
More on Obama's Capitulation and Betrayal (tags)
capitulating to Republicans
US Congress Represents Fellow Millionaires (tags)
Democratic Representative of San Francisco, Nancy Pelosi, claims assets of $60 million, with her home and vineyard worth about $15 million. Her investments include AT&T, Cisco Systems, Microsoft, Aloca, Apple, Dow Chemical and Motorola, among others. No millionaire can possibly represent the workingclass, the 80% of us who sell our labor for less than $77,000 a year. Almost half of the US Congress are millionaires.
Class Warfare Jeopardizing American Workers' Security (tags)
waging war against vital social benefits
THEIR COMING 2 TAKE AWAY YOUR ABORTION & SAME SEX MARRIAGE RIGHTS little u.s. voters .... (tags)
BET YOUR SWEET BIPPY THAT MUCH OF THIS BUSH~ROVE $750 BILLION TARP WALL STREET~ BANKERS PONZI $$ ARE ALSO IN THIS KARL ROVE ELITE BILLIONAIRE'S ELECTION FUNDING...
BET YOUR SWEET BIPPIE THAT BUSH~ROVE PONZI TARP BILLIONS ARE ALSO IN THIS ELECTION FUNDING (tags)
SO YOU STILL DO NOT BELIEVE THAT KARL ROVE AND HIS BILLIONAIRES ARE GOING TO TAKE ABORTION AND GAY MARRIAGE OUT OF AMERICA WITH THEIR BIG $$ MEDIA BRAIN~WASHING IN EVERY COUNTY EVERY STATE AND EVERY CITY IF NEED BE~ THEIR ALSO VERY LOADED WITH BUSH~ROVE $750 BILLION PONZI TARP WALL STREET~BANKERS BAILOUT $$ AND HAVE BEEN WAITING TO SPEND THEM THIS ELECTION CYCLE AND IN MANY OF OUR FUTURE BIG $$ AMERICAN ELECTIONS.
Restore Financial Sanity (tags)
Restore Financial Sanity and the People's Wealth
THE FICTION OF FREEDOM IN AMERICA (tags)
The servants of these investors and money "managers," like corporate executives and our elected - excuse the expression -representatives, look from the side, taking a payoff, as we get economically raped. This is designed to prevent wage "inflation" (that's a raise in the minimum, or any other, wage) by keeping unemployment high,
IT BEGAN THE BRAZILIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION (tags)
Everything equal again.
Deficit Hysteria: Wrongheaded in Times of Depression (tags)
proposed policies are wrecking economies
BRAZIL IN 2025: DESTRUCTION or DEVELOPMENT (tags)
Brazil commemorates... but the black clouds didn't vanish.
Work- and Social Criticism in the Time of Capitalist Running Amok (tags)
The term social goes through a fundamental change of meaning. Earlier social described an obligation of society to its members. Today the little word social stands for the caring duty of members of society toward the capitalist machine
The End of Illusion and the Beginning of the Future (tags)
Elite democracy with its corruption of wealth distribution, language and community is not the last word. The future could be a human future of a social contract, not a war of wolves against each other. Access could replace excess.
The Origins of Modern Socialism (tags)
The specter of socialism is again haunting the minds of the corporate elite, from the Americas to Europe and beyond. This, after decades of pro-capitalist campaigning from the corporate media, which has always confused “capitalism” with “freedom.” But of course freedom and democracy cannot exist alongside tremendous inequalities of wealth — or next to corporations wielding absolute power over elections and governments.
More than ever, the oil must be ours (tags)
Just like in the beginning. With the same passion and the same radicality of campaign "The oil is ours". If, in the 1950's, when our daily production was 2,300 barrels, the whole country has mobilized in favor of retaining the oil wealth to Brazilians, what to say about today, when, in only four fields, it is estimated that the reserves of pre-salt layer will produce 16 billion barrels?
The Crisis of Capitalism: Credit-Doping (tags)
"The social market economy blows the wealth of this society in speculation rather than in higher wages, higher pensions or unemployment benefits.. All capital transactions with tax havens should be prohibited.. Instead of democratization, we growing centralization in a few hands.."
Obama's New World Order (tags)
Obama's imperial agenda
The California Budget and Class War (tags)
On February 19, the California legislature, after weeks of wrangling, passed a special budget to address the historically high $42 billion deficit. It represents an unadulterated washout for working people who are attacked on almost every front by the Democratic Party, which controls a broad majority in the legislature.
BTL:Replace Wall Street's Phantom Wealth with Main Street's Real Wealth (tags)
BETWEEN THE LINES Syndicated Radio Newsmagazine --Weekly Summary
The Federal Reserve Abolition Act (tags)
Abolishing the Fed.
Spreading the Wealth: A Review of Unjust Deserts (tags)
The foremost ethical question is, given that we owe most of our productivity to a common social inheritance, to what extent can we say that we have "earned" our personal wealth? There is a growing consensus in favor of a new robust public compact to regulate our shared conditions.
A Critique of the Fourth International (tags)
Correcting our political perspective
Capitalism in Crisis (tags)
Some thoughts on the current economic crisis and capitalism
The global crisis is a crisis of capitalism (tags)
It is time for the workers and the poor in the Philippines to prepare for the worse the moment its government keeps on repeating the mantra that the economic fundamentals remain good and thus there is little to worry about effects of the global recessionary trend. The world found itself in the present mess precisely because of such blind faith in neoliberal fundamentalism.
SPREAD THE WEALTH OF WALL STREET, BIG OIL AND TAX-EVADER FOX! (tags)
The fascist Fox News of Rupert Murdoch has been whipping up a mania and false fear against socialism, Marxism and “spreading the wealth” But it is protecting only its own tax evasion and the speculative profit, predatory lending and price-gouging of Wall Street and Big Oil.
The Fleecing of America (tags)
Public and private looting.
Eight Free Metaphysical Websites You Can't Live Without& (tags)
Religious ecstasy, being truly and completely in the present moment in the body - this is not exactly a sustainable state, now is it?
A cataclysmic financial storm is about to bring down U.S. economy (tags)
"This phenomenon is a growing threat to the national security and sovereignty of the US. The hundreds of billions of dollars caught up as windfall profit for Arab Islamic oil barons is soon to be used to buy distressed and foreclosed property from the very Americans that the run up in oil has exploited."
Building Bridges: Foreclosed: The State of the Dream (tags)
Building Bridges: Your Community Labor Report - National Edition Produced by Ken Nash & Mimi Rosenberg *************************
Interview with Kurt Richebacher (tags)
"The dangers that loom on the currency front are immense. The US trade deficit and the accumulated foreign indebtedness have reached a scale that defies any possible action by central banks." Dr. Richebacher is a former economist of the Dresden Bank.
Another Economy is Possible (tags)
The world economy increasingly has the character of a plutonomy, a wealth economy where the rich appropriate an ever larger share of the social wealth. Imagine an economy that serves justice, peace and creation, where competition and cooperation coexist and the future is safeguarded
The immiseration of the working class – Marx was right! (tags)
Just a couple of weeks ago, America's government tax collectors, the Internal Revenue Service, issued a new report. The IRS found that the richest 1% of Americans earned a record 21.2% of all income in 2005, up from 19% the year before. At the same time, the bottom 50% earned just 12.8% of all income in 2005, down from 13.4%. This was a record. IRS data only go back to 1986, but other academic research suggests that the last time wealthy Americans had such a high percentage of the national income was in the 1920s. And there's more. The IRS data show that the incomes of people right in the middle of all the income brackets (where half earn less and half earn more) fell 2% between 2000 and 2005 when adjusted for inflation, to $30,881. At the same time, the income level for the top 1% grew 3% to $364,657, or over ten times as much! This shows that capitalism is not only a breeder of economic crisis, war and waste, but is also a system of grotesque exploitation and injustice. When Marx wrote Das Kapital around 150 years ago, he argued that "pauperism (poverty) forms the condition of capitalist production and of the capitalist development of wealth... in proportion as capital accumulates, the situation of the worker, be his payment high or low, must grow worse".
Retirement under capitalism (tags)
Sometimes small statistics can have huge implications. The U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics recently reported that the age at which U.S. workers retire has risen for the first time in 100 years. According to the report, in the mid-1980s, 18 percent of people in their late 60s still had jobs; today, it is 29 percent. Millions of U.S. workers can no longer look forward to the “Golden Years” of guaranteed Social Security, Medicare health insurance and employer pensions. One in four baby boomers surveyed said they would likely never be able to retire – in other words, they will “work until they drop”. For those that do want to retire, the age at which they can do so is also being systematically raised. Workers born in 1960 or later must wait until age 67, rather than 65, to get their full Social Security benefits. There is talk of raising it further to 70. The mainstream media took scant notice of this, and for good reason; it’s a huge indicator of deeper processes that are destroying the standard of living of workers in the United States and internationally. A quick look into why workers are delaying retirement – if they have the “luxury” of retiring at all – points a condemning finger at the current state of international capitalism, while at the same time warning younger workers of the even worse conditions they’ll certainly face under the auspices of the capitalist system.
Greenspan's Dark Legacy Unmasked (tags)
Alan Greenspan's true record of public disservice.
On the "Wealth Creation" of the Financial Sector (tags)
My counter-thesis is that a huge waste of economic resources occurs in the area of financial services. Competitive games, the worldwide casino and the invention of securities bundling rotten mortgages are not productive achievements of the capital market.
Cults of Unreason and the End of Species (tags)
People today seem perplexed as civilisation as we know it plummets into the abyss. Yet, in the broad sense, the future is entirely predicable. The much lauded system of economic rationalism has resulted in huge disparities in wealth comparable to ancient societies; the wealth of Pharaoh-God-Kings of the past was staggering and in stark contrast to the wealth of their subjects. The peoples’ living standards were maintained at ‘adequate‘ levels to ensure a fit work/slave force for their rulers – remind you of anything, are you able to draw any comparisons today? In fact ancient Egypt (utilising modern poverty statistics) would have fared better in the social sense than most of today’s societies. So much for economic rationalism and laissez-faire capitalism! The inequity of today’s economic reality is far from mysterious; however, one mystery remains, the masses of today tolerate far greater inequities than the masses of yesterday.
Loan defaults escalating: Big Finance and governments Responsible (tags)
Many articles have been written on the tactic of pervasive and continuous debt as a form of economic social management. However, few financial ‘wizards’ and politicians understood the ramifications of such a tactic. To meet regular needs average people have been forced to borrow at rates never before seen. As a result of the created necessity to borrow large amounts and the ease of obtaining large loans, a rapid increase in loan defaults is occurring. Perhaps statistical information on the ‘spike’ in long term debt servicing and mortgagee defaults highlights the failure of the debt strategy. Hailed at the time as the optimum method of economic and social management, today it is proving to be just another strategy of big business appropriating more at the expense of EVERYTHING and everyone else.
Where do the moneylenders get their money? (tags)
Accepting that labor creates all wealth alone will not open the road to our emancipation. Understanding how it creates it is paramount.
The Market is a Universal Totalitarian Religion (tags)
Money replaces God and has become our new religion, a universal totalitarian religion that never existed before.. Commodification of goods is more important than the goods themselves.
Workers Know All About Capital Accumulation, Don't We? (tags)
It is within the pages of the main Bourgeois journals that we find the strongest confirmation of Marx's economic writings.
The Failure of Modern Western Society (tags)
Wind down from your artificially induced stress/pace and confront your personal reality – take stock for a moment. Your existence has been confined to sustaining and maintaining a system that makes ever-increasing demands on your liberty and freedom – the pillars upon which joy and satisfaction are built/derived! The frenzied pace of western society is largely the result of the manic need for ever increasing profits and greater concentrations of wealth in the fewest possible hands, which inevitably makes higher demands on those at the bottom of the financial scale. Obtaining wealth is simply a matter of applying unfair downward pressure in favour of upward flowing benefits; wealth is not created it is the result of manipulation and/or theft – the historical record bears this out. Put simply, profit is exploitation/theft!
David Simon: “We’re Headed Towards Separate Americas!” (tags)
The award-winning author of the acclaimed HBO program, “The Wire,” painted a grim picture of this country. David Simon said: “We’re headed [towards] separate Americas.” Speaking at Loyola College, in Baltimore, MD, on Feb. 6, 2007, he said that “unencumbered Capitalism has become our God.” In our greedy society, Simon underscored: “Human are worth less, not more: less.” He said America is going to be a “more brutish, cynical and divided place.”
Why Capitalists support the war (tags)
To put it simply, they want to maximize their profits at the expense of the vast majority. This requires access to raw materials, markets, and cheap labor, not to mention juicy government contracts with built-in profits. But don't take our word for it. Here's what the representatives and defenders of U.S. capitalism have had to say about it over the years: "War is just a racket. A racket is best described, I believe, as something that is not what it seems to the majority of people. Only a small inside group knows what it is about. It is conducted for the benefit of the very few at the expense of the masses... "It may seem odd for me, a military man to adopt such a comparison. Truthfulness compels me to. I spent thirty- three years and four months in active military service as a member of this country's most agile military force, the Marine Corps. I served in all commissioned ranks from Second Lieutenant to Major-General. And during that period, I spent most of my time being a high class muscle-man for Big Business, for Wall Street and for the Bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism." - USMC General Smedley Butler, 1933 "...We have about 50 percent of the world's wealth, but only 6.3 percent of its population... Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming; and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction... We should cease to talk about vague and... unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are then hampered by idealistic slogans, the better." - George Kennan, State Department, 1948
Christian Morality and Economic Reason (tags)
Finance capital circling anonymously around the globe seeking only short-term profit must expect the resistance of the affected and of the church that turns to the affected. The question is who profits from globalization.
The New Breed (tags)
A recent news report detailing the effects of Globalisation – western economic/military expansionism by any other name – and the explosion of organised criminal activity in the Balkans was aired today on ABC Radio Australia. The primary item of interest dealt with the negative impact that Western Europe, including the UK, is experiencing as a result of the activities of Albanian, Turkish, Bosnian, Bulgarian and Serbian criminal syndicates. According to the report NATO’s intervention and the subsequent elimination of traditional regulatory forces and authorities in the region has facilitated the “explosion”.
Ludicrous Assumptions (tags)
Ludicrous assumptions are many but perhaps the most absurd is the assumption that those who steal the greater percentage of available wealth and continue to implement economic strategies designed to enslave are (somehow) safe and secure. From the Pacific islands to the pitch battles in Mainland China, exploited people of the world are retaliating against injustice.
Where is All the Wealth Going? (tags)
The produced wealth is concentrated in the hands of a small elite. The downside of this concentration of wealth is absolute poverty, hunger and disease. The North could meet its financial obligations to the South.
How Much Poverty Can a Society Endure? (tags)
Pretending that justice is possible with growing inequality is pure ideology. Distribu-tive justice is the key for a peaceful future.. Spending for the welfare state has not grown in Germany.
Uniting the Liberals, Lefties, and Progressives (tags)
Ever since the classic revolutions that begun the current epoch of ‘democracy’, and more importantly capitalism, there have remained an inherent disunity among those loosely defined as progressives. Why this lack of unity exists, and why our political opponents do not seem to suffer from the same ailment is something worth examining.
Oil Wealth as a Curse (tags)
The world energy need will increase 50 percent by 2030 necessitating investments of billions in the energy infrastructures.. With its oil greed and balance of payments deficit, the US could endanger global peace and the stability of the world economy.
Visiting the SCF: Report Back (tags)
Impressions from my second visit to the farm (I'm from Sonoma County)
The Enron verdicts: corruption and American capitalism (tags)
The guilty verdicts handed down by a Houston jury last week against former Enron chiefs Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling provide an opportunity to evaluate the significance of the company’s rise and fall within the context of American capitalism. Accounts by jurors given after the verdicts were announced indicate they all agreed that the evidence against the two executives was overwhelming. It consisted mainly of testimony from over a dozen former executives, who implicated Lay and Skilling for their roles in defrauding investors and employees through various forms of accounting manipulation. The jurors quickly rejected the absurd position of the defense that Enron was basically a healthy company that collapsed into bankruptcy in December 2001 largely as the result of Wall Street machinations and negative press coverage.
Washington renews demand for cuts to Social Security, Medicare (tags)
The Bush administration, echoed by much of the mass media, seized upon reports released May 1 on the fiscal health of the Social Security and Medicare system to renew its demand for drastic cuts to these two major entitlement programs, thereby gutting retirement benefits and health care for older Americans. According to the reports, issued by the trustees of the programs’ trust funds, the Medicare Hospital Insurance Trust Fund is projected to become insolvent by 2018, due largely to rapidly rising costs of American health care outstripping the payroll taxes that fund the program. The report on Social Security indicates that this program will be able to pay out 100 percent of benefits until 2040, when the trustees predict the fund will be exhausted—a year earlier than previous projections. After that it would be able to cover 74 percent of promised benefits out of revenues until 2080, when it would decline to 70 percent.
African-Americans, Economic Well-Being, and Immigration (tags)
...while the concern for African-American well-being is well placed, the source of the problem is not always correctly located...
Marx for dummies (tags)
It’ no accident that many people are finding a rekindled interest in the writings of Karl Marx; the international assault of workers wages and benefits, continued warfare, and economic instability in general are causing a revival of the buried and slandered ideas of Marxism. Many of these concepts offer tremendous insight about the origins and workings of capitalism, and thus the causes of many of society’s current problems. Needless to say, involved are immense implications for anybody interested in becoming an activist. A “Marxist” is someone who accepts some of the key points about history and society first explained by Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels, and elaborated further by the writings of Lenin, Trotsky, and many others (Stalin, Mao, etc are Marxists in name only). Unfortunately, one cannot learn about these ideas by going to college, aside from the many biased and bastardized versions of the subject. The following is a brief explanation of some of the more important concepts of Marxism.
No Work instead of Precarious Work (tags)
After the fall of the New Economy, flexibility, individualization and outsourcing are obviously threats not promises and mean nothing but poverty and precarious working conditions.
The Bolivarian Revolution: A Movement of Hope and Threat (tags)
A long essay, split up into three parts, delving into the Bolivarian Revolution of Hugo Chavez, offering a fresh perspective on Latin American history and an analysis of the Revolution transforming Venezuela and the region. Print this one out and enjoy while sitting on your favorite couch or chair. This is a refreshing, well written essay worthy of some time.
American Greed (tags)
American Pigs , Wealth disparity
GW the Lamb of Mammon (tags)
Got this idea while thinking about the ambush the CIA is playing on the neocons.
A Re-publican Nation: the Born-again Publicans (tags)
A new era has descended upon us, indeed: the era of Re-publicanism; an era which is sure to irrevocably determine who amongst us is free. and who will not be.
Global Capitalism: the Scourge of Democracy (tags)
global capitalism is an economic Colt 45 for the times
A Call to Resist (tags)
Keep you doped with religion and sex and TV And you think you're so clever and class less and free But you're still fucking peasants as far as I can see A working class hero is something to be A working class hero is something to be - John Lenon
Magical Mysterious 1967 (tags)
Nobody could have predicted 1967 in 1966. It seemed to come out of the clear blue sky. But it didn’t. It had been germinating for a long, long time. And there is no reason to think that if we couldn’t see it coming in 1966 that we would see it coming now.
Minutemen founder Jim Gilchrist wants to redistribute the wealth in Mexico and America (tags)
Announces two interviews on "illegal" immigration from two vastly different viewpoints.
Eleven Arguments for a Basic Income (tags)
Social logic is more future-friendly than profit logic. With the end of cheap oil and the dollar crash on the horizon, a basic income would make the future human rather than predatory Social Darwinism, winner-takes-all, hire-and fire and right of stronger could be dinosaurs.
Abundance and Scarcity (tags)
The demand for a basic income attacks one of the basic pillars of the capitalist society:the notion that only persons who work may eat. Every person on this earth has a right to share in socvial life and wealth only because he or she exists as a person.
Revolution or Bust (tags)
Wal Mart has recently given workers in Quebec the great 'fuck you' for having the guts to organize. A sign of the times.
Five Reasons for an Unconditional Basic Income for All (tags)
Participation in modern societies is only possible when one has an income.. The pro-posal to grant a basic income to every person independent of gainful work results from human rights and from pragmatic-economic considerations.
US Economy in Freefall (tags)
Any realistic analysis of the Bush Administration and it's impact on the US and Global economy indicates that the US Dollar is being demolished. - Greensplat
Pope Was Right But Did Wrong (tags)
“Wealth should not be accumulated for its own sake. It should not be gained by injustice or oppression. Wealth often leads to covetousness. It belongs to God, not to us; we are simply stewards. We sin if we do not use it to help the poor, the weak, and the oppressed (Ezek. 22:29)
George Bush is a murderer! (tags)
Lizard loyalist GW Bush and skull and bones homo erect this, is a terrorist and should be shot on site going by the laws and edicts written up since his 911 mass a cure...
Venezuela: The Revolution Will Be Televised! (tags)
The Enough-for-All Campaign (tags)
The neoliberal policy is international and supposedly without alternative. However policy is man-made and therefore can be changed.. Every person has a right to share in the social wealth.
That is what democracy looks like! (tags)
A really good blog on the Democracy of South America!
They Will Never Stop, We Must Stop Them. (tags)
I think it's important to remember that in the novel 1984, Orwell drew a world where, despite the crushing uniform behavior enforced by the ruling elite, even a remaining avenue of escape; language, was being destroyed. The despotism was unrelenting, ever enclosing and absolute in it's reduction of the individual to an insect. This, I believe is the kernel of the warning given to us by Mr. George Orwell.
MULTITUDE: MONSTER OR MASTER (tags)
Often we suspect there is something ‘rotten’ in our global order and only an urgent adjustment can save us from calamity. But we are unable to articulate or convert our suspicions into logical concepts expressed in the context of past and current political and economic evolutions.
Coronation of Corruption (tags)
Please spread far and wide.
Open Letter to President Bush from IAEFF (tags)
IAEFF wants Bush to extend freedom medal to AFL-CIO leaders
Can we help topple the Saudi Royalty? (tags)
The Saudi Royalty combined with the US military presence in Saudi Arabia keep the workers in poverty, providing the Bush oil dynasty with unlimited access to Saudi oil reserves. The US military occupation of Iraq is preparing for future instability in Saudi Arabia, the top two oil reserves in the world..
Starving Amid Plenty (tags)
With society awash in cash workers are expected to take cuts and be thankful
Sack the Rich (tags)
Why do people obsess with wealth? I've been castigated by the weasels for retiring into worn phrases that have been echoing throughout the ages. I feel so confused... Hmmm let me sort this out.
Sweden: Poorer Than You Think (tags)
Building Bridges Radio- Class War with Bill Moyers, Meizhu Lui, and Chuck Collins (tags)
Building Bridges: Your Community and Labor Reports brings you this 28 minute radio program. TO LISTEN CLICK ON LA INDYMEDIA LINK
Who Owns the Sky? Reviving the Commons (tags)
"Not since the Golden Age of the 1890s has so much public wealth been shoveled into private hands with such brazen efficiency. Timber companies, corporate ranchers and foreign mining companies.. are plundering our national patrimony.."
Interview with Dennis Kucinich (tags)
The Indy (http://indy.pabn.org) interviewed Democratic president candidate Rep. Dennis Kucinich (D-Ohio) on March 14, 2004, as he campaigned in Normal, Illinois before the Illinois primary
The Relevance of Marxism (tags)
Some predictions Marx made during his analysis of capitalism that have proved to be accurate and one that has yet to come to pass.
Poverty: A Killer (tags)
Falling under the category of protecting the down trodden. . . What is the cure for poverty? Wealth. Embrace the creation of wealth or millions die.
Millionaires and the Unemployed (tags)
"The millionaire could simply pay his unemployed. If we calculate 12X5X1000 is 60,000 Euros a year. This is the sum that the highest segment of this class saves by the lowering of the top tax rate from 48 to 42 percent planned by Mr. Schroeder."
The Biggest Shell Game (tags)
CAFR - The Biggest Shell Game For Theft In History
The Fascism is getting harder to hide. And harder to fight. (tags)
Found this morons diatribe on DU and thought I'd post it here so all the liberal and anarchist wingnuts would have something to jerk -off to. Don't say I never did anything for you. Idiots.
The Revolution Makers (tags)
the death of capitalism
Unemployed? Worried? Read On... (tags)
First, we need to remember how wealth is created. The average high school graduate comes out thinking that if they get more of the money others have, then that's the way to create wealth. They don't have a clue about wealth creation, because in most cases, the schools don't teach it, and most of the kid's parents don't know either -- so herewith is a refresher course.
The 9-11 Hoax, the Federal Reserve and the World Bank (tags)
Scientific calculation shows that the amount of time and energy invested by nature to produce one gallon of petroleum converted into kilowatt-hours at the present commercial rates at which electricity is sold amounts to approximately $1 million per gallon....
Our Brave Soldiers Fight Ignoble Wars for Cowards (tags)
Our dead young American soldiers are fighting for some very wealthy individuals who think they know how to rule the world. These power mongers use their wealth to create policy and their policy to create more wealth. Their policy is brutal. They think nothing of killing 10,000 innocent civilians (almost entirely Muslim) and destroying their lands with the most lethal of weapons of mass destruction so that they can exploit their natural resources and gain a stronghold in the Middle East by establishing a permanent military presence in Iraq and Afghanistan- in the heart of Islam, oil and five of the worlds nuclear nations.
Neo-liberalism (by Latuff) (tags)
Copyright-free artwork by Brazilian cartoonist Latuff.
President Re-Affirms Solidarity With Cuba (tags)
I'd like to remind all citizens that I've already expressed solidarity with the popular governments of Cuba, Venezuala, France, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Palestine, Russia, the Swiss Confederation, the Iroquois Confederacy, and all the people of the world who advocate equal rights and equal responsibilities....
Sex, Lies and Weapons of Mass Distraction (tags)
Tomorrow's Edition of Our Historical Crisis....
Fear of a spiral into Depression as job losses mount (tags)
Dismal sales at Christmas time were propped up by deflationary price cuts, and now the retail sector is among the hardest hit as one third of a million jobs are slashed in February. Not coincidentally, the same rise of the Extreme Right Wing is taking place as was seen during the depression of the 30s, with the same drive to seek relief in aggressive wars of conquest...
The Wealth-Transfer Machine (tags)
If you want to know how the country is controlled you have to understand the basics of how it's done. How is done - by keeping you poor and manipulating the politicians through the use of money and debt. These are not trivial issues and require some work to understand. However, if you want to understand it is worth the effort.
Great Depression. George Bush vs Einstein on economic policy (tags)
According to the mathematician, Albert Einstein, the policies of George Bush are likely to result in another Great Depression. To quote a recurring quip, 'I know George Bush, and let me tell you, George Bush is no Albert Einstein.'
What the Bible says about the Israeli ruling class (tags)
Bush foreign policy guided by Conservative Israeli Likud Party: What does the Bible say about totalitarian capitalism and economic justice?
Opera Ball ATTACK in Austria! (by Latuff) (tags)
Support "Attack the Opera ball!" Alliance.
[PFMPE] Promising Prosperity, and Delivering Perpetually Multiplied Indebtedness (tags)
Since banking-imposed instability and maldistribution of wealth paved the way to pretend central banking was a solution for banking-imposed instability and maldistribution of wealth, we have a century of the Democrat and Republican parties, tied to the purse strings of the instrument of multiplying indebtedness they ostensibly founded on our behalf.
Free Music&Art -- LA To LA, Burn TV & Radio...Fascist Propaganda Tools (tags)
Fascism and exclusion in Alabama and prisons for profit, also known as State sanctioned slavery and extortion in California's legal system.
Just Another Coincidence.... (tags)
As most folks outside the USA already know, real Jews worship God, not "money". Real Jews are not mammonists. Talmudic Euro-Ashkenazis are neither real Jews, nor are they Semitic. And since the so-called "Jewish banking conspiracy" is EXPOSED, by definition it isn't a "conspiracy", but just a manifestation of the neurotic death-industrial COMPLEX....
The So-Called Elections (tags)
In light of the fact that the United States has no legitimate elections, provisional President Jon Chance again thanks our citizens for the popular mandate to fight domestic white-collar terrorism....
responses to Bush's speech (tags)
we will use the full weight of the law to expose and root out corruption
World Social Forum Agenda (tags)
The list below, from the World Social Forum Website is a break-down of the four topics of conversation to be addressed at the WSF
Money Drives the World (tags)
Bush Sr. linked to the Bin Laden Family, which in turn means bin Laden family is tied in with US finacial insitutions and companies.
Is History Repeating Itself -notes on Globalization and The Future (tags)
A review of past practices and explotation of 17th C., and other institutions. A bit light on the technology issue, but perhaps the book itself is more informative.
Bush Budget Plan Redistributes Nation's Wealth fm Poor, Middle Class to the Rich (tags)
Between The Lines' Scott Harris spoke with Frances Fox Piven, distinguished professor of political science and sociology at the graduate school of the City University of New York who asserts that the Bush Administration's proposed budget will redistribute wealth from the poor and middle class to the most affluent sector of society.
Bush Budget Plan Redistributes Nation's Wealth fr Poor, Middle Class to the Rich (tags)
...distinguished professor of political science and sociology at the graduate school of the City University of New York who asserts that the Bush Administration's proposed budget will redistribute wealth from the poor and middle class to the most affluent sector of society.
Money: Print Your Own! (tags)
Instead of creating wealth, our money system is depleting our real wealth: our communities, ecosystems, and productive infrastructure.
Challenging the Wealth Primary (tags)
Summary: There are moments in our nation's history when a tradition that we once thought constitutional becomes constitutional no more. The history of the right to vote in this country includes, in fact, a series of such moments. Today, we must face up to the newest voting-rights barrier: the "wealth primary"--a direct analogy of the racist all-white primaries of the past.
Twelve Ways to Democratize the U.S. Political System: Eighth (tags)
Twelve Ways to Democratize the U.S. Political System: Eighth Reduce wealth inequality.
United for a Fair Economy Brings "Economic Apartheid" Message to Shadow (tags)
United for a Fair Economy Brings "Economic Apartheid" Message As Convener of Shadow Convention "Poverty and Wealth Gap Day" August 14
when the crunch comes, then what? (tags)