fix articles 19193, madeleine albright
The birth of propaganda and The war of perception (tags)
One of the founding fathers of modern propaganda, Edward Bernays, therefore also openly admitted that especially in democracies, where the majority of people decide, the control of thoughts and feelings is a central tool. "Public relations involves 'the engineering of consent.'"
The window of opportunity is closing (tags)
Oscar Wilde wrote: "A map of the world in which Utopia is not marked is not worth looking at, for it undercuts the shore on which mankind will eternally land." "Disobedience, for anyone versed in history, is man's true virtue. Through disobedience came progress..." (Wilde 2014)
Ukraine's decoupling was foolish and dangerous (tags)
Promote peace, don't fuel conflict. There are only two ways to end a war. Either with a negotiated settlement. Or with the annihilation of one side or the other. That's how wars end, unfortunately, when there is no negotiated settlement...There must be a diplomatic solution.
The US Tramples on International Law (tags)
The US surprise attack on Iraq in March 2003 was a primal catastrophe. International law was eliminated and replaced by the imperial dictatorship of the US. Those who destroyed a whole people and have a million casualties on their conscience are not punished in any way.
Sanctions and Double Standards (tags)
Sanctions are war with other means-and not an alternative to war. The civilian population pays the price with their bodies and their lives. Export restrictions on the most important revenues of a country cause immense suffering. That Iran has not attacked another country is unmentioned.
Right-wing Populism: Can More Madness Cure the Madness? (tags)
Neoliberal policy was always mad. But an even greater madness now appears with rightwing populism. Politics is mad because it writes off large parts of the population. Economic Darwinism has nested and established itself as market ideology in the brains of people.
US Saber-Rattling on Russia's Borders (tags)
Ukrainian Presidential Election (tags)
Justifying the Unjustifiable (tags)
Stoking Confrontation with Russia (tags)
NATO's Rape of Yugoslavia (tags)
Beltway Bandit Named Senior Obama Adviser (tags)
Obama's World: Peace a Convenient Illusion (tags)
Trafficking in Lies about Syria (tags)
Fast-Tracking Toward War on Syria (tags)
America Honors Its Worst (tags)
Israel's War Criminal of the Year Award (tags)
Hillary Clinton: Profile of Imperial Arrogance and Lawlessness (tags)
Letter to All Americans About Gun Control from a Dissident Independent (tags)
Guns are an effective form of human violence, which is why they are so often employed in both war and crime. They are dangerous and deadly. Reasons for their existence are not always, or even often, noble. They kill. This is to say we human animals kill—and nowhere more so than for political reasons—such as a nation venturing abroad for purported reasons to exact war against terrorists, etc. (while not ironically understanding that war is terrorism). And yet there is something “more” dangerous than weapons and that is politics itself (that history reminds us over and over again). Guns do “not” exist in a vacuum—they are artifacts built for and by a corrupt species of creature. No government ever—no matter how much naïve trust by blind patriotism exist—should be trusted to the point citizens just hand over their right to defend themselves from those in power. ALL forms of government are corruptible, and so are ALL forms of institution. This government (and especially both major political parties and their lobby cronies), if not thoroughly corrupt, is still too corrupt—including its capacity to violate human rights. Banning of guns (or other Constitutional rights) here in the United States must be understood within these recent radical changes that have happened especially since 9/11. It could be the equivalent of giving Mafia thugs your last weapons.
Unconscionable Media Warmongering (tags)
Capitalism Failed (tags)
Presidential Medal of Freedom (tags)
Washington’s “humanitarian” war and the KLA’s crimes (tags)
"This may come as no surprise to those who have witnessed his rise from terrorist thug to head of the newly “independent” state. But what will be a shock to many is the grotesque way in the KLA helped finance its operations—by removing and selling body organs from kidnapped Serb and Kosovan Albanian civilian prisoners." "Any prosecution of the KLA was made “impossible” by Washington, which has been its main sponsor since at least 1998. Following the Bosnian war of 1995, the KLA, seeking to capitalise on popular resentment among Kosovan Albanians against the regime of Slobodan Milosevic in Serbia, pursued a strategy of destabilising Kosovo by acts of terrorism in the hope of provoking Western intervention." "US Senator Joseph Lieberman declared that “Fighting for the KLA is fighting for human rights."
The Selling of the Woodrow Wilson Center (tags)
The DC-based Woodrow Wilson Center, established by Congress, has sold out to corporate America and political interests. Its president, former Congressman Lee H. Hamilton, has questionable corporate links.
Wilson Center Desecrates Namesake’s Legacy, Violates Congressional Mandate (tags)
Woodrow Wilson, the 28th American president, is looking down in horror at what the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars is doing in his name.
"War never serves peace" (tags)
War never serves peace just as lies never serve truth and cats are not dogs. We wage war against the nature that we exploit and against the starving whom we drive into misery. As soon as one says war, we fall back thousands of years to the Stone Age and lose the option for the future.
The Planning of War Behind Closed Doors: Brussels, London, Istanbul: Week Of Western War (tags)
"If any further evidence was required that the United Nations is at the service of NATO and not vice versa, that the EU is NATO's civilian valet de chambre, and that all three are subordinated to the United States, the last week's events and the roster of attendees at them should suffice. ??The chain of command begins in Washington and orders barked out there work their way down to Brussels and New York City."
The Gaza War's Effect on Women (tags)
they suffered terribly
“Future Without War” Author Discusses Women Nobel Laureates (tags)
Of the 789 people who have won the Nobel Prize, just 35 of them have been women. But among them are individuals with truly remarkable stories, Dr. Judith Hand told the Humanist Fellowship of San Diego at a program September 20 at the San Diego Public Library. They range from pioneering scientists Marie Curie and Barbara McClintock to writers Pearl S. Buck, Nadine Gordimer, Toni Morrison and Doris Lessing and peace activists Betty Williams, Mairead Corrigan, Aung San Suu Kyi, Rigoberta Menchú, Jody Williams, Shirin Ebadi and Wangari Matthai. Dr. Hand shared some of these women's stories in the context of her own belief that more involvement of women in the public affairs of the world can lead to a future without war.
Journalist Snow Offers Alternative View of Africa (tags)
Independent journalist Keith Harmon Snow began his February 5 presentation at San Diego's World Beat Center with a promise to "piss you off" — and he succeeded. He took on innumerable progressive sacred cows, including the United Nations, the Peace Corps, the Nation magazine, Jane Goodall and Ben Affleck, and he presented an alternative view of recent African history focused on the role of Uganda, Rwanda and the U.S. in the continued war and exploitation in the Congo.
Obama's New Appointments (tags)
as bad as the others
Jeremy Scahill: 20 Hawks, Clintonites and Neocons to Watch for in Obama's White House (tags)
U.S. policy is not about one individual, and no matter how much faith people place in President-elect Barack Obama, the policies he enacts will be fruit of a tree with many roots. Among them: his personal politics and views, the disastrous realities his administration will inherit, and, of course, unpredictable future crises. But the best immediate indicator of what an Obama administration might look like can be found in the people he surrounds himself with and who he appoints to his Cabinet. And, frankly, when it comes to foreign policy, it is not looking good.
Obama Mania (tags)
A reality check.
Disturbing Stirrings - Ratcheting Up For War On Iran (tags)
Worrisome signs resurfacing.
CUBA: “Desperate White House” (tags)
El último discurso de Bush contra Cuba ha sido inmediatamente reproducido con entusiasmo en las páginas de cuanto medio dócil al imperio existe sobre la faz planetaria. Y fue tanta la premura de algunos que realizan habitualmente la facturación de sus mentiras en idioma español, que tratando de bailar al ritmo del amo y no perder el paso, se apresuraron a transcribirlo directamente en el inglés original
UPDATED: Italy's former President: 9-11 was a CIA-Mossad inside job (tags)
Italy's former President Francesco Cossiga has told Italy's "most respected newspaper" [Corriere della Sera] that the 9-11 attacks "were run by the CIA and Mossad and that this was common knowledge amongst global intelligence agencies." (This is an updated, expanded version of an article which was originally posted a few weeks ago.)
Middle East Nuclear Holocaust to Defend "The Western Way of Life" (tags)
The Western media is involved in a diabolical disinformation campaign, the purpose of which is to persuade public opinion that the only way to "create a nuclear free World" is to use nuclear weapons on a preemptive basis, against countries which "threaten our Western Way of Life." We are a dangerous crossroads: military planners believe their own propaganda. The military manuals state that this new generation of nuclear weapons are "safe" for use in the battlefield. They are no longer a weapon of last resort. There are no impediments or political obstacles to their use.
Bringing Death and Destruction to Muslims (tags)
by Paul Craig Roberts
Mitt Romney:Fox News' Islamofascist Ijaz Mansoor's Advice Killed WSJ Reporter Daniel Pearl (tags)
And that,(getting Daniel Pearl killed by his advice and contacts in Pakistan)),was at least hopefully unintentional.Worse yet is when this scumbag Ijaz actually bribes,(donates),to our elected officials to influence their political decisions including in Pakistan and the Middle East that could or has come BACK TO HAUNT US ALL. :
Coup E'Etat Rumblings in Venezuela (tags)
The Bush administration aims to crush democracy in Venezuela.
Corporate Disobedience: A Shrill Hysteria in the Fascist Press (tags)
The Bill Maher incident exposes the blanket media censorship of the 9/11 cover up. The violent and reactionary responses to protest expose the fascist mindset endemic in right wing (and other) media.
US Dept. of Veterans: 73,846 US troops dead, 1,620,906 disabled (tags)
The U.S. Department of Veteran's Affairs, in conjunction with the Joint Chiefs of Staff, has released the truth because they need all people to know the US military is literally destroyed. They are under orders to conceal the truth at all costs, so they let slip a report which now cannot be "un-slipped."
Afghanistan, the CIA, bin Laden, and the Taliban (tags)
The U.S. government was well aware of the Taliban's reactionary program, yet it chose to back their rise to power in the mid-1990s. The creation of the Taliban was "actively encouraged by the ISI and the CIA," according to Selig Harrison, an expert on U.S. relations with Asia. "The United States encouraged Saudi Arabia and Pakistan to support the Taliban, certainly right up to their advance on Kabul," adds respected journalist Ahmed Rashid. When the Taliban took power, State Department spokesperson Glyn Davies said that he saw "nothing objectionable" in the Taliban's plans to impose strict Islamic law, and Senator Hank Brown, chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on the Near East and South Asia, welcomed the new regime: "The good part of what has happened is that one of the factions at last seems capable of developing a new government in Afghanistan." "The Taliban will probably develop like the Saudis. There will be Aramco [the consortium of oil companies that controlled Saudi oil], pipelines, an emir, no parliament and lots of Sharia law. We can live with that," said another U.S. diplomat in 1997.
Obama calls for US attack on Pakistan in warmongering address (tags)
In a transparent effort to bolster his reputation for toughness on national security issues and outflank his main rivals on the right for the 2008 Democratic Party presidential nomination, Senator Barack Obama of Illinois delivered a bellicose speech August 1 at a Washington think tank. Speaking to the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Obama called for more troops to be sent to Afghanistan, threatened unilateral attacks against Pakistan and pledged to strengthen the US military and intelligence apparatus.
La Brea Tar Pits: A Metaphor for the America Republic? (tags)
President George W. Bush now has the power, thanks to a mostly cowardly Congress, to declare “Martial Law!” The Defense Authorization Act of 2006 gave him the green light. All he needs is a Reichstag-like incident and our Republic will be history. Like the animals who were trapped in the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, it has been sinking for years. Author Chalmers Johnson is convinced the U.S. Empire is headed the way of Greece’s and Rome’s.
Demcrat Agenda Omissions (tags)
Democrats in Congress again betraying the public trust.
As Can Be Imagined - The Death of Freedom for America (tags)
So, those who supported blindly blaming the Taliban along with bin Laden for 9/11 while closing outstanding public inquiries are demon liars, who in materially supporting hostilities against the United States by refusing through censorship to Publicly support the arrest of those responsible for killing innocent Americans - became willingly, bonafide cahooting terrorists, true bad guy "enemy combatants".
US vs THEM - A Johnny Commentary (tags)
Johnny Wizard has been arrested by irrational bushite for threatening the life of antiChrist enemy George W. bush, and with the bogus warrant made to undermine the true FBI, used the action to make fraudulent accusations in respect for Johnny's love of Children. Don't miss out in the trial of the Century!
Double Standards of Morality: The Age of Terror (tags)
This reluctance to confront unpleasant truths diminishes the reader or viewer for whom Middle East reporting in the US media is almost incomprehensible to anyone who does not know the region. It also has its trickle-down effects even in theatres, universities and schools in America. The case of the play about Rachel Corrie--the young US activist twice run over by an Israeli bulldozer while trying to prevent the demolition of Palestinian homes--taken off the New York stage was one of the more deplorable of these. I was also surprised in the Bronx to find that Fieldston, a private school in Riverdale--was forced to cancel a college meeting with two Palestinian lecturers when parents objected to the absence of an Israeli on the panel. The fact that Israeli speakers were to be invited later made no difference. The school's principal later announced that the meeting would "not be appropriate given t! he sensitivity and complexity of the issue". Complex problems are supposed to be explained. But this could not be explained because, well, it was too complex and--the truth--would upset the usual Israeli lobbyists.
Christ Crossed (tags)
Christ Crossed http://radio.indymedia.org/uploads/christ-crossed.mp3 "The most powerful audio recording ever created."
Israel Condemns Israel (tags)
Millions of land mine cluster duds ungodly Israel has thrown into 170 towns of Lebanon to murder innocent children with for decades. Along with radio-active toxic waste that will suffer G-d's Humanity indiscriminately for untold generations. Terrorist Crimes the Israeli State with corporate bushite News america claimed repeatedly, are worth targeted execution of themselves for.
ATTENTION: All admirable soldiers and police officers (tags)
Again, I will remind all admirable soldiers and police officers: CNN, CBC, and FOXNews has forbidden our truths to be broadcast in support of Justice for ourselves. WTC7. Zionist corporate medias are deliberately working to mislead our kids to have them willingly sacrifice their lives in further blind support of the real terrorists that committed the crimes of 911. As according to the FBI.
Using American tax dollars to overthrow foreign governments under the guise of "democ (tags)
Foreign governments complain that these democracy-building groups maneuver behind the scenes to help destabilize and topple their governments, including in countries where the official U.S. policy has been to work through diplomatic channels with those same governments.
After the Fiasco (tags)
Iran's strategic position today is better than ever. The EU was the first to feel this. America now feels this and wisely renounces on military strikes.. What lessons must America draw from this strategic fiasco?
News Junkie Scott's Blog (3/12/06) (tags)
Terror Rehearsals in US, Russia
Depleted Uranium Contaminates Europe - Evidence Was Hidden By Halliburton (tags)
....estimated that the atomicity equivalent of at least 400,000 Nagasaki bombs has been released into the global atmosphere since 1991, from the use of depleted uranium munitions.
Harry Reid Uncovering GOP Plot to start a war based on fake WMD Intelligence (tags)
It's been four weeks since Senate Democratic Party leader Harry Reid launched his personal investigation into the Republican plot to manipulate intelligence to trick the American people into believing Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction.
Ending the Spiral of Violence (tags)
The US violates human rights in the name of human rights..The Occident conquered, colonized and carried out a never-seen genocide. .With the mechanism of globalized casino capitalism, we kill as many people every year as the victims of the whole WW2.
Why is the Federal Government destroying National Security ? (tags)
Federal officials are more responsive to foreign interests than to American citizens ! The President believes in unprotected borders. The Congress aids foreign governments. The Supreme Court evicts private citizens from their property to enrich foreign private profiteers. WHY?
Ward Churchill responds to attacks... (tags)
Press Release - by Ward Churchill January 31, 2005
An American "moderate muslim" (tags)
“I remember telling my wife; maybe I will be our Henry Kissinger, the first Muslim to become the Secretary of State. Then came Bin Laden and his bloody men and along with the World Trade Center, American Muslim dreams and aspirations came crashing down.”
RALPH NADER, UN CANDIDAT BAILLONE DANS UNE ELECTION SANS ENJEUX (tags)
En combattant la candidature de Ralph Nader, qui porte les idées progressistes depuis plusieurs décennies, pour donner un blanc-seing au clone démocrate de G.W. Bush, les notables du mouvement « N’importe Qui Sauf Bush » ont ruiné cinq années de mobilisation croissante depuis la naissance du mouvement alter-mondialiste en 1999 à Seattle, jusqu’au mouvement anti-guerre qui a rassemblé des millions de personnes dans le monde en 2003, et qui exige aujourd’hui la fin de l’occupation étrangère en Irak et en Palestine. Au moment où la prétendue "guerre contre le terrorisme" s'intensifie, le mouvement pacifiste reste à reconstruire.
Anniversary of the Assassination of Folke Bernadotte af Wisborg: September 17 1948 (tags)
Count Folke Bernadotte, special UN Mediator to Mid East ...responsibile for saving 20,000 Jews from Himmler was assassinated this day, September 17 1948. The man directly responsible for his death, Nathan Friedman-Yellin was sentenced, pardoned after 5 months and was allowed to serve on Knesset
Women’s march shakes Washington (tags)
WASHINGTON – “I know firsthand the anti-choice extremists now in control of the Capitol and of the White House are opposed to basic contraception,” House Democratic Leader Nancy Pelosi told the more than 1 million participants at the April 25 March for Women’s Lives.
Some People Push Back (tags)
In April 2003, the United States was celebrating a “cakewalk” and on May 1, 2003, George Bush declared “the end of major combat operations” in front of a banner proclaiming “Mission Accomplished”. In April 2004, “cakewalk” has been replaced with “quagmire” and “Mission Accomplished” has been taken over by a “Nightmare Scenario.”
How Times Have Changed (tags)
9/11 Commission Hearings: The Logic of War and Empire (tags)
Countless eyes were glued to the days of public testimony on March 23 and 24 before the "National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States." The ten-member panel grilled policymakers from the Bush team and the previous Clinton administration. There were angry outbursts and finger-pointing. For days, charges and countercharges echoed back and forth outside the commission hearing--through the power structure and the intensifying electoral arena.
An anti-state communist perspective on the war (tags)
This is 2003 article about the Iraq War 2, just before it started. It's from Anarchy: a journal of desire armed. It's unusually prescient in its predictions of how the entire war will go. I post this because the journal has been criticized by some anarchistists as "primitivist", and Anarchism has been derided by the Left as everything from chaos to disruptive and unthinking. Liberals stereotype anarchists as young fashion victims, implying they are shallow. These are simplistic stereotypes at best, and fear mongering at the worst. Articles like this one below, I hope, give people pause to consider the relevance and usefulness of anti-state, anti-capitalist critique. Remember, this article was written before we invaded Iraq. So here goes. -- Just Another Anarchist
Saddam Hussein's weapons (tags)
911 Commission Hearings--The Logic of War and Empire (tags)
The recent 911 Commission hearings reveal the grim truth--the rulers--both Republicans and Democratcs--actually plan to, if anything, more aggressively pursue their war against the people of the world in the name of their "war against terrorism"
9/11 Commision Director, Philip Zelikow, has Major Conflict of Interest (tags)
Members of several 9/11 victim groups are calling for the Director of the 9/11 Commission, Philip Zelikow, to step down siting a conflict of
US documents implicate Kissinger in Argentine atrocities (tags)
Secret archives released by the US State Department directly implicate former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and other top American officials in backing the brutal military regime of mass murder, “disappearances” and torture that ruled Argentina for more than seven years, beginning in March 1976.
The staircase wit of this century (tags)
The U.S. remote-controlled fake president claims fair legal proceedings and death penalty for a U.S. hellhound. He has decided for a colossal bloodbath among European and U.S. politicans, his backers and himself
The Democrats don’t deserve our support (tags)
There is no reason to assume, as many do, that a Gore presidency would have avoided war after September 11. Clinton oversaw UN-sponsored sanctions against Iraq that led to the deaths of more than 1 million Iraqis, and U.S. warplanes dropped bombs on Iraq almost daily during his time in office. And Clinton signed the Iraq Liberation Act in 1998, calling for the U.S. "to seek to remove the regime headed by Saddam Hussein." Clinton’s Secretary of State Madeleine Albright admits in a recent Foreign Affairs article, "I personally felt [Bush’s new Iraq] war was justified on the basis of Saddam’s decade-long refusal to comply with UN Security Council resolutions on weapons of mass destruction."
What Liberals Believe (tags)
Rich Lowry is editor of National Review and he has a deep understanding of Democrats and Liberals
Clinton Makes Ammends for Own Piss-poor Mistakes (tags)
Bill Clinton says, "You know, everybody makes mistakes when they are president. Some of us perjure ourselves. Others of us simply state British intelligence might have valuable information."
Justifying Occupation (tags)
I thought this looked like an interesting reference for those wishing to develop arguments counter to the Spin and PsyOps coming from the Mainstream NewsWhores.
The Democrats' WMD fraud (tags)
The exposure of the continued lies put forth by the anti-American leftist shills.
BREAKING THE TYRANNY OF SILENCE ON GLOBAL JEW ECHELON HEGEMONY (tags)
Vitally to make Global Jew Echelon to pay so long overdue reparations to worldwide suffered mass victims. At last to liberate our world from blood sucking hyenas slavery shackles. Whilst eradicating for good the factual anti-Christ plague on Earth. Mind you, when some still need referring to anthropology gurus or genetics expert analysts, the individual as myself got a natural God given faculty just to suss it at glance so uniquely typical our Jew kind of hereditary endowed Neanderthal features.
Shedding No Tears for Iraqi Civilians (tags)
On April 2nd, Al Jazeera news network reported that Bartallah, a predominantly Iraqi Christian town north of Mosul, suffered heavy civilian casualties after a night of intense coalition bombing. The local chief surgeon at the hospital reported that there were 120 dead and wounded civilians brought into the hospital within the past week.
Red Light Indicator for Israel; Fear is No Excuse (tags)
The former Bosnian Serb President, Biljana Plavsic, has said "fear" blinded her to the atrocities Serbs were committing during the Bosnian war. Today She was sentenced to 25 year in prison.
IMPORTANT NEWSFLASH FROM WHITEHOUSE (tags)
NEWSFLASH Mr. Bush's new criminal edict now states Americans can rise up for America to kill him as a terrorist and be thought Just and God Worthy. I Agree with bush finally.
Johnny is Mainstream! Johnny is Mainstream! Johnny is Mainstream! (tags)
..bush, the unelected American cop killer, has still to be questioned by american corporate dictates, why, General Ahmad, is not a wanted man by American Patriot flag waving standards being coporatized as not worthy thinking as.
Holy Jesus Man! Johnny Wizard is staying for snacks! Holy Jesus Man! (tags)
Holy Jesus Man! Have you heard the Revelations from India's government to the FBI now made public?, regarding the principle terrorist funder of Mohammad Atta being, the ISI's, General Ahmad? The bush administration's personal confidant, and top secret military strategist? See, it was Jim at MSNBC that informed US of bush's terrorist plan existing as once top secret presidential documents, and, that this same general, was also responsible for, according to several members of the Senate Intelligence Committee, ...
Understanding US Policy with Iraq (tags)
War is not inevitable. However, only the masses can stop it.
Condemned to Empire (tags)
Does empire encourage untruthfulness, the rewriting of history and the crisis of language and community? Can the unipolar moment annul the multipolar reality? Does denial of interdependence plunge a cnation into paralysis? Translated from the German
A Peace Poster Project (tags)
We created a poster that has appeared in around 20 states, and has been dowloaded over 1,000 times from the site (www.nomorevictims.org) created to support distribution. Appropriate text is now being developed for versions in Spanish, Japanese, Italian and Finnish. The poster features a powerful photograph of an Iraqi girl who was injured in a US bombing raid south of Basra in April, 1999. Download the poster by accessing http://www.nomorevictims.org/PosterDownloads.html. You can also email a letter to Bush from the site.
CONDOLEEZZA'S NONSENSE ABOUT DEMOCRACY (tags)
Some history rather than hysteria...
Weapons of Mass Destruction (tags)
The weapons of mass destruction used by the United States on the Iraqi people.
At USC, Protesters Oppose Albright, Sanctions, and War (tags)
Around 100 demonstrators called for an end to both the sanctions against Iraq, and the bombing of Afghanistan, at a rally at the University of Southern California (USC) outside of an auditorium where former Secretary of State Madeleine Albight gave a speech on foreign relations.
Demonstrate against Madeleine Albright at USC -- Tuesday (tags)
Come out and demonstrate against Clinton's Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, Tuesday 5:30pm at USC -- raise your voice for peace! Below is a catalog of some of Secretary Albright's more incendiary warmongering comments.