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by Wilma Banaag
Monday, Apr. 07, 2014 at 11:23 AM
The concept of National Democracy aims to overthrow feudalism and achieve independence from colonialism.
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However, it dispenses with the rule predicted by Marx that a capitalist class would usually follow such a struggle, claiming instead to seek to enter directly into socialism through a coalition of classes fighting the old ruling order. The coalition is subsumed under the leadership and guidance of the working class and its communist party, working with the communists irrespective of their competing ideologies, in order to achieve the more immediate goal of a "national democratic order" that the communists hoped would then lead to full-blown socialism and communism, in spite of the competing class interests of the social classes of the "bloc".
Because of National Democracy's nature as an 'intermediate stage', it is considered a stepping-stone to socialism—an essentially two-stage theory of first National Democracy, then the dictatorship of the proletariat ("socialism"). Given that the self-proclaimed ultimate goal of socialist construction is the creation of a stateless, classless and moneyless communist society, adding the National Democratic Revolution as a prerequisite stage arguably makes the whole process of the Revolution a three-stage theory: first National Democracy, then socialism, then communism.
Currently, the Shining Path, the New People's Army of the Philippines, and the Communist Party of India (Maoist) pursue similar actions pursuant to similar ideas, conducting active guerrilla warfare ("people's war") with the intent of establishing National Democracy. In 2006, the Communist Party of Nepal entered the government of Nepal using similar "National Democratic" reasoning and methods. However, it was expelled from the coalition in 2009, and its leader (who had been elected Prime Minister) was deposed, so since then the CPN(M) has oscillated between threatening to return to 'armed struggle' and leading general strikes in Nepal using its still-considerable influence in the Nepalese labour movement.
Some have argued that the "Fast Track Land Reform Program" in Zimbabwe represents the culmination of National Democracy there; these same people usually also say that ZANU-PF remains a genuinely socialist party.
Political Parties advocating National Democracy:
 National Democratic Party of Germany
The National Democratic Party of Germany (German: Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD), is a far-right political party in Germany. It was founded in 1964 as successor to the German Reich Party (German: Deutsche Reichspartei, DRP). Party statements also self-identify the party as Germany's "only significant patriotic force". On 1 January 2011, the far-right German People's Union (German: Deutsche Volksunion) merged with the NPD and the party name of the National Democratic Party of Germany was extended by the addition of "The People's Union".
The party is usually described as a neo-Nazi organization, and has been referred to as "the most significant neo-Nazi party to emerge after 1945".The German Federal Agency for Civic Education, or BPB, has criticized the NPD for working with members of organizations which were later found unconstitutional by the federal courts and disbanded, while the German Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, the Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, classifies the NPD as a "threat to the constitutional order" because of its platform and philosophy, and it is under their observation. The NPD rejects this depiction, viewing it an attempt to discredit their politics. An effort to outlaw the party failed in 2003.
 National Democratic Party (Italy)
The National Democratic Party (Partito Nazional Democratico) is a minor nationalist and conservative political party in Italy.
It was founded in November 2003 and wants to attract the electorate of the historical Italian Social Movement, National Democracy and the rightist faction of Christian Democracy. It supports the House of Freedoms coalition.
It is not represented in the Italian Parliament, the European Parliament, nor in any regional or provincial assemblies.
 National Democracy (Spain)
National Democracy (Spanish: Democracia Nacional, DN) is a far right political party in Spain, founded in 1995. It is modeled on the Front National (FN) of France, and grew indirectly out of several defunct parties like the CEDADE group and Juntas Españolas. Its leader is Manuel Canduela Serrano, a former member of Accion Radical, a group active in the Valencian Community. He was also a vocalist in the so-called identity rock group Division 250.
In the 2004 general election, the party got 15,180 votes throughout Spain, amounting to 0.06% of the total vote. In the 2008 general election, it got 12,588 votes, amounting to 0.05% of the vote. That dropped to 0.01% of the vote in the 2011 general election, with 1,876 votes.
 National Democratic Party (Argentina)
The National Democratic Party, or Partido Demócrata Nacional (PDN) was an Argentine conservative party created in 1931 which disappeared after 1955. It was generally known simply as the Conservative Party, or Partido Conservador.
Along the Antipersonalist Radical Civic Union (UCR-A) and the Independent Socialist Party (PSI) it was a part of the Concordancia, a coalition government that ruled between 1932 and 1943, a period of Argentine History known as the "Infamous Decade", characterised by massive voter fraud.
Among its leading figures were Robustiano Patrón Costas, Julio Argentino Pascual Roca, Manuel Fresco and Rodolfo Moreno. Ramón S. Castillo, Vice-President to Roberto María Ortiz, who went to serve as acting President between 1940 and 1942, and later as President until June 4, 1943, was a member of this party.
After the "Revolución Libertadora" (1955–1958), the military uprising which overthrew Juan Perón, the PDN fragmented into various parties such as the "Partido Conservador Popular" (PCP), the "Partido Demócrata" and the "Partido Demócrata de Centro".
 National Democracy (Poland)
National Democracy (Polish: Narodowa Demokracja, also known from its abbreviation ND as "Endecja") was a Polish right-wing nationalist political movement active from the latter 19th century to the end of the Second Polish Republic in 1939. A founder and principal ideologue was Roman Dmowski. Other ideological fathers of the movement were Zygmunt Balicki and Jan Ludwik Popławski.
The National Democracy's main stronghold was Greater Poland (western Poland), where much of the movement's early impetus derived from efforts to counter Imperial Germany's policy of Germanizing its Polish territorial holdings. Subsequently a focus of National Democracy interest was countering Polish-Jewish economic competition with Catholic Poles. Party supporters were mostly ethnic-Polish intelligentsia, bourgeoisie, middle class and youth.
During the interbellum Second Republic, National Democracy was a strong advocate for Polonization of the country's German minority and of the non-Polish (chiefly Ukrainian and Belarusian) populations of Poland's eastern Kresy.
With the end of World War II, the National Democracy movement effectively ceased to exist.
 National Democratic Party of Lithuania
National Democratic Party of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos nacionaldemokratų partija) was a right-wing, nationalist political party in Lithuania. Its last leader was Žilvinas Razminas.
The party was established on the January 30, 1999 by the former leader of the Lithuanian National Union, Rimantas Smetona.
According to the official founding LNDP program adopted at the LNDP constituent congress of the January 30, 1999, the Lithuanian National Democratic Party's goal is to strengthen and maintain the Lithuanian people and the independent state of Lithuania, and ensure that the state is rich, secure, and equally fair to all its citizens. The party is guided by the principles of national democracy, an ideology it views as a middle way between anarchism, liberalism, and totalitarianism, which it claims are responsible for Lithuania's growing income disparity and cultural and moral decay. The party seeks a pragmatic approach to the Lithuanian economy, seeking to maintain and strengthen a free market that is agricultural, supports small and big businesses alike, is modern and competitive in a globalised economy, and encourages investment whilst also maintaining and implementing measures to ensure Lithuanian control over Lithuanian goods, services, and wealth.
Rimantas Smetona and Kazimieras Uoka left the party after it was taken over by anti-semite Mindaugas Murza and his followers.
In 2009 the members of the party voted in favour of merging to an ultranationalist Unified Lithuanian National Workers Movement.
 National Democratic Party (Nepal)
The Rastriya Prajatantra Party (Nepali: राष्ट्रिय प्रजातन्त्र पार्टी; translation: National Democratic Party) is a Nepalese political party. It is a centre-right, liberal conservative party, formed out of the political elite of the erstwhile Panchayat system, formed on 1990, after reestablishment of democracy in Nepal. It was formerly pro-monarchy, leaving the Rastriya Prajatantra Party-Nepal as the only major monarchist party in Nepal.
In 1997 RPP split after the faction led by pro-monarchy politician Lokendra Bahadur Chand joined a coalition government with Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist), with Chand as Prime Minister. The faction led by Surya Bahadur Thapa allied itself with Nepali Congress and toppled the UML-RPP government. Effectively RPP-Chand began to function as a separate party. In 1998 the RPP-Chand and RPP-Thapa were reunited, after both factions had fared badly in the elections that year.
In the 1999 legislative elections, the party won 10.4% of the popular vote and 11 out of 205 seats.
 National Democratic Party (UK, 1966)
The National Democratic Party (NDP) was a right wing political party that operated in the United Kingdom during the 1960s and 1970s. The NDP sought to position itself as an early rival to the National Front although ultimately it failed to challenge the position of this group.
The NDP had existed on paper since the early 1960s as the title was used by Dr David Brown in both the 1964 and 1966 general elections to contest the Ipswich constituency, securing 0.6% and 1.3% of the vote in the respective elections. However this NDP had no existence beyond Brown and it was not until 1966 that a process of formalisation as a proper political party took place.
In 1966, Brown, who was also the chairman of the Racial Preservation Society, proposed to form the NDP by merging the RPS with John Bean's British National Party. However this did not occur as Bean was put off by Brown insisting that the Greater Britain Movement should be excluded from any alliance and that Brown should be sole leader of the new party. Following this Brown entered negotiations with A.K. Chesterton about using the League of Empire Loyalists as the basis for the NDP but this plan was rejected by Chesterton as once again Brown insisted that leadership should lie with him alone. The National Front, effectively a merger between the BNP, LEL and elements of the RPS under Robin Beauclaire followed soon afterwards, with Brown excluded.
Despite this set back the NDP was established officially in 1966 before the NF although critics, particularly from within the NF, argued that Brown only did so as he could not stand the prospect of serving under A. K. Chesterton. Amongst the leading members of the party upon formation was Leslie Eric 'Lutz' Vaughan who had been associated with the National Socialist Movement's Spearhead paramilitary wing and Column 88.
 National Democratic Institute (USA)
The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) is an organization created by the United States government by way of the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) to channel grants for furthering democracy in developing nations. It was founded in 1983, shortly after the U.S. Congress created the National Endowment for Democracy. Taxpayer funding is provided by the Federal Government, both directly from the United States Agency for International Development and the Department of State and indirectly through the National Endowment for Democracy. Additional funds are raised through voluntary donations from foreign governments, multilateral institutions, and private foundations. It is headquartered in Washington, D.C.
Under its mission, "NDI provides practical assistance to civic and political leaders advancing democratic values, practices and institutions. NDI works with democrats in every region of the world to build political and civic organizations, safeguard elections, and to promote citizen participation, openness and accountability in government". NDI has worked in 125 different countries and territories since it was created and its six main areas of work are citizen participation, election processes, political parties, women in politics, democracy and technology, and democratic governance.
NDI is loosely associated with the Democratic Party of the United States. However, NDI's programs are nonpartisan, and it works with various democratic and non-violent political parties and civic groups. As stated on its website, "NDI does not presume to impose solutions nor does it believe that one democratic system can be replicated elsewhere. Rather, NDI shares experiences and offers a range of options so that leaders can adapt those practices and institutions that may work best in their own political environment".
Critics charge that the term "democracy assistance" and "democracy building" are rhetorically employed to overpower nationalist and socialist resistance to US economic and cultural domination, particularly in Russia.
The Institute regularly researches and releases reports on global democratic political developments in conjunction with think tanks, NGOs, and civic organizations. It also maintains offices in more than 70 countries in Asia, the Former Soviet Union, Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.
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